On this episode of Hoi Polloi, Dr. Abidan Shah sits down with Dr. David Alan Black to discuss new works and what’s on the horizon!
GENESIS by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: How many of you had a friend or knew someone growing up who was very good at telling tall tales? I knew a kid like that in elementary school. We would all crowd around his desk between classes because he told the best stories of finding hidden treasures in his backyard, how his uncle was a spy, and how he was building a rocket ship. He would even bring little objects from home and tell us that they were developed by the military. Looking back, they were probably just small parts from his dad’s car or truck. The point is that he was making these things up just to impress us and make us flock around him. Sometimes, people think that the Bible is nothing more than a collection of tall tales meant to make us flock around the church, especially the first few chapters of Genesis. Nothing could be further from the truth. As you know, we are in our series on Apologetics called “Contend,” and we are turning our attention to the book of Genesis because of some of the questions that we received – #1 Is the Genesis account of creation meant to be taken literally? #2 Aren’t there other ancient myths and legends of creation? #3 Did the Bible borrow from other myths and legends? #4 Doesn’t science contradict the creation account in Genesis? Main Point: If there is one book in the Bible that has been a target of attack more than any other, it is the book of Genesis. That’s because it is both the account of our origin and our fall. In other words, it tells us how we got here and what happened to us. To get this wrong will eventually cause us to get the gospel wrong.
Genesis 1 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. 3 Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.
Context: Most of us have no questions or qualms in reading that passage. That’s what God’s Word says how this world began and that’s what we should believe. Unfortunately, that’s not how everyone thinks about that passage or the first eleven chapters of Genesis, or even just Genesis 1. It may surprise some of you that there are 4 different ways that people have taken this book or these sections, especially Genesis 1-11 (Todd Beall): 1. Not historical, just a myth. 2. Not a myth, just figurative. 3. Not a myth, but partly figurative and partly literal. 4. Literal (Plain-view). I hold to the 4th view. Don’t misunderstand: This does not mean that we don’t consider the different genres in the Bible like poetry, wisdom, parables, etc. We understand that sometimes the biblical writers used metaphors like in Psalm 104 2 “…Who stretch out the heavens like a curtain. 3 He lays the beams of His upper chambers in the waters.” The more you study Genesis, especially the first 11 chapters, it is a narrative and not an extended poetic metaphor. None of the elements of Hebrew poetry like schema, metaphor, and other tropes are found.
Here’s a reminder: There are people who don’t take the fourth view like I do, but before I call them unbelievers or pass judgment on them, I must examine how what they believe about Genesis 1-11 impacts the first rank doctrines – the Trinity, the full deity and humanity of Jesus Christ, justification by faith, and the authority of Scripture. Here are some things that affect the first rank doctrines with regards to Genesis 1-11:
- God and the creation are separate, and he made the creation out of nothing. That’s his aseity (independence and eternality).
- The world was perfect before sin came in.
- Adam and Eve were real historical individuals who were created in the image of God but chose to disobey God and fell into sin.
- With them all of us are also sinners (original sin) and we need redemption through the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.
There are issues that are placed in the secondary or even tertiary category – the age of the earth and the length of the days in creation, etc. We need to be careful here because these issues do impact the Authority of Scripture, which is a primary issue. If I say that a part of the Bible is just a myth, legend, or figurative, then what happens to the other parts? Can I truly then say that “All Scripture is given by Inspiration of God?”
Why do I believe that the Genesis account should be taken literally? 3 major reasons (Beall and James K. Hoffmeier):
- No Division in Genesis
There are people who will say that Genesis 12-50 is literal, but not Genesis 1-11. Keep in mind that we divide the Bible into chapters and verses, but that’s not how Moses wrote it. For those of you who may not know – Chapter Divisions were put into the Bible by Stephen Langton (1150-1228), the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Verse Divisions were put in by Robert I. Estienne or Robert Stephanus (1503-1559), a printer/ scholar in Paris. By the way, the Red Letters of Jesus’ words were put in by Louis Klopsch (June 19th, 1899). He was the editor of the Christian Herald magazine, and he asked his mentor T. De Witt Talmadge (Pastor of the Brooklyn Tabernacle) to help with that. The point is that all these breaks came much later.
To the contrary, the entire book is connected by a phrase that is repeated – “eleh toledoth,” meaning “these are the generations of” or “this is the history of”:
- Genesis 2:4 “This is the history of the heavens and the earth”
- Genesis 5:1 “This is the book of the genealogy of Adam”
- Genesis 6:9 “This is the genealogy of Noah”
- Genesis 10:1 “Now this is the genealogy of the sons of Noah”
- Genesis 11:10 “This is the genealogy of Shem”
- Genesis 11:27 “This is the genealogy of Terah”
- Genesis 25:12 “Now this is the genealogy of Ishmael, Abraham’s son”
- Genesis 25:19 “This is the genealogy of Isaac, Abraham’s son”
- Genesis 36:1, 9 “Now this is the genealogy of Esau”
- Genesis 37:2 “This is the history of Jacob”
Each time that phrase comes up, it narrows the focus to a particular group of people. These names are not fictitious but real historical people. The historical references are not just in Genesis 12 onwards but also in the first 11 chapters – 66 geographical names, 88 personal names, 48 generic names, 21 items like gold and other precious metals (Walter Kaiser). He even adds that Genesis 10 has 5 times more geographical information than the entire Quran. In conclusion, the first 11 chapters are setting up for the historical call of a historical person named Abram in chapter 12.
- No Dependence in Genesis
There are people who claim that the opening chapters of Genesis resemble Babylonian, Canaanite, and Egyptian myths and mythologies. Of course, there may be some parallels, but there are far more differences. For example: some point to the similarities between Enuma Elish (Babylonian creation myth) and Genesis creation. The only clear parallel is where the god Marduk splits Tiamat into 2 spheres of water, which is like God dividing the waters in the firmament on day 2. What many don’t consider is how Enuma Elish is different from the Genesis account. There the god Marduk is being portrayed as superior to other gods and the universe coming into being after a big battle between the gods. Also, not much about the creation of light or the plant and animal beings. In the Canaanite myths, it is the conflict between the storm god Baal and the sea god Yam. So also, in the Egyptian myths, the focus is on the creation of the gods and the cosmos. Even there, these gods are made in all sorts of ways – Ptah speaks the world into being, Atum’s semen and fingers are used in creation, even his spit. Finally, the world is cyclical, where the sun is born every day and the Nile recedes each year. Finally, the gods are themselves a part of nature. This is nothing like the Genesis account of creation.
To the contrary, there are 4 things that stand out as evidence that the events in Genesis 1-11 are to be taken literally:
- Garden of Eden
Genesis 2 10 Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four riverheads. 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good. Bdellium and the onyx stone are there. 13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which goes around the whole land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is Hiddekel; it is the one which goes toward the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.
Tigris and Euphrates are clearly identifiable. Gihon – through the land of Cush, cental Mesopotamia could have been known as the land of Cush, after the Kassites. Pishon – possibly the river discovered from the Shuttle Imaging Radar technology that flowed east from Saudi Arabia.
- Sons of God and Daughters of Men
Genesis 6 1 Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, 2 that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose. 3 And the LORD said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” 4 There were giants on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown.
We will look at this in detail further down. For now, think of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh which depicts a hero holding a lion in his arm. His name appears on the Sumerian King List as the 5th king of the first dynasty of Uruk. This is dated around 2750 BC. Bottom line: History is stranger than fiction!
- Global Flood:
Genesis 6 13 And God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me, for the earth is filled with violence through them; and behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 14Make yourself an ark of gopherwood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and outside with pitch. 15 And this is how you shall make it: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, its width fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. 16 You shall make a window for the ark, and you shall finish it to a cubit from above; and set the door of the ark in its side. You shall make it with lower, second, and third decks.
Compare this with Epic of Gilgamesh where a man Utnapishtim recounts the flood story. The sky god Anu decided to send a flood because people were making too much noise. The god Ea decided to reveal the plan to Utnapishtim, and he built the ship. When the floods came, the gods cowered like dogs outside and the goddess Ishtar screamed like a woman in childbirth. When the flood was over and he offered sacrifices, the gods crowded around the food like flies!
- Tower of Babel
Genesis 11 1 Now the whole earth had one language and one speech. 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. 3 Then they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They had brick for stone, and they had asphalt for mortar. 4 And they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top is in the heavens; let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.”
More and more evidence support that our languages had a common beginning. The Sumerians had myths about a period when there was only one language.
- No Doubt Regarding Genesis
At least 25 passages that talk about Genesis 1-11. Here are just a few:
Matthew 19 4 And He answered and said to them, “Have you not read that He who made them at the beginning ‘made them male and female,’ 5 and said, ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’? 6So then, they are no longer two but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let not man separate.”
2 Corinthians 11:3 But I fear, lest somehow, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.
Matthew 24 37 But as the days of Noah were, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be. 38 For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, 39 and did not know until the flood came and took them all away, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be.
Conclusion: We have a real problem that stems from a real event that took place in a real garden to 2 real people. God knew that when he created the world that he would also have to come to save it. He did 2000 years ago by sending his Son to die on a real cross on a real hill called Calvary. There is a real judgment coming where if you don’t receive him, you will be cast into a real lake of fire which was prepared for a real Satan and the fallen angels. You don’t have to go there. Instead, you can go to the real new heavens and the new earth by receiving Christ as your Savior and King.
Invitation: Genesis is true, and the Gospel is true. Are you saved?
DISCOVER by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: I remember like it was yesterday when I told my dad that God was calling me into full time ministry and his response was “No, you need to stick to what you were going to do.” The reason he said that was because he had come to me in my final year of high school, when I was studying for med school and possibly engineering, and told me that he wanted me to go to a Christian college for a couple of years before I went off into my field of study. I remember asking him why, especially because I was not going to be a pastor. He told me that he really wanted me to be grounded in my faith and that he was afraid that I might lose my way. I didn’t understand that at the time, but later I did. I was always very studious, and my father was afraid that if I went off into a scientific field without being solidly established in my biblical understanding that I may not remain in the faith. Looking back, I am truly grateful that he did what he did. I am also glad that I didn’t listen to him the second time or I wouldn’t be here! In our series on Apologetics titled CONTEND, we are shifting gears a little bit. So far, we were focused on Scriptural Authority compared to the books of other religions. Over the next few weeks, we will focus on the relationship between science and the Bible. When we did our survey, many questions were directed towards this topic – 1. Doesn’t science contradict the Bible? 2. Does Carbon Dating disprove the Bible? 3. Isn’t faith just a crutch for the weak? Main point: Modern Science was birthed in the cradle of Christianity as believers in the Western culture began to explore their world with the conviction that the Creator God was a God of order. They believed that the created world did not have to be feared or worshipped. Instead, it could be studied, and its power and resources harnessed for the betterment of humanity. Rejection of biblical truths will return us to the dark ages. True scientific discoveries do not endanger our faith but enhance it.
Romans 1:18 “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness.”
Context: Before we pass judgment on Paul as being some close-minded hellfire and brimstone preacher from the backwoods, let’s back up to verse 14 “I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise.” Paul was very well trained in the knowledge and wisdom of the civilized people of the Greco-Roman world, those living in the city states of the inner Mediterranean world. At the same time, he was not some city snob, sipping his latte, and clueless about the outer world. He had been trained in their ways as well. Because of this, he felt that he was an “opheiletes” (debtor) to both groups and had an obligation to preach to both – 15 So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also. 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “The just shall live by faith.” In other words, Paul is unashamed in his conviction that the gospel can save the civilized and the uncivilized. All they have to do is believe in the gospel of Christ and live. But there was a hurdle – God’s anger was hovering over them because of their “ungodliness” and “unrighteousness”. Those two words are not exactly synonymous. The first “asebeia” represents vertical lack of reverence for God, and the second “adikia” represents the horizontal lack of respect for his just order. Why? Because they are “katecho” (suppressing) the truth in their rejection of his just order. Pay attention now – 19 “because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. 20 For since the creation of the world (ktisis kosmou = creation of the universe) His invisible attributesare clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse.” In other words, both with observation of the created world and with their reasoning ability, they know God’s eternal power and deity. Nonetheless, they have chosen to reject him with some dire consequences.
Paul’s word to the Romans is a perfect description of our world today. With all the knowledge and advancement our world is experiencing, it is becoming increasingly hostile towards God, and we have no leg to stand on. Unfortunately, it is impacting our young people the most. They go off to secular colleges and universities and return without their faith or with many doubts and questions. Unfortunately, the church often fails to give adequate answers to their questions and all it takes is some trial and struggle in their life and they get blown away. How should we answer them? More specifically, how should we train our kids and students before they leave home so that no amount of scientific knowledge would shake their faith. Instead, it should make it stronger.
First, let’s clear up the myth:
Often it is claimed that organized church or Christianity has always tried to persecute science and scientists. Those who claim that usually bring up the story of Galileo and the Roman Catholic Church. They usually point to the period in the seventeenth century when the Western world experienced what is called a “Scientific Revolution.” We need to back up and truly understand this revolution was actually a part of a much larger revolution called the “Protestant Reformation.” Among many other incidents, it was led by a German monk named Martin Luther, who nailed what’s called his “95-Thesis” to the Wittenberg Door in 1517. A major point of this revolution was to bring the scriptures in the hands of the ordinary people. The Scientific Revolution simply extended that attitude towards all creation, the second sacred book. It was a break from the established authority of the Roman Catholic church, but not a break from the Bible or Christianity. Think for a moment, Francis Bacon (the major leader of the scientific revolution and the one who developed the scientific method) was also part of the translation of the KJV in 1611. In fact, we need to understand that modern science was birthed in the cradle of Christianity, and it began much before the Scientific Revolution. This is the period known as the Middle Ages or the Dark Ages. We often think of it as a world of close-minded superstitions. To the contrary, this is the period when modern science was actually born and grew. It was called “Natural Philosophy.” It was in monasteries and universities that were built by the Roman Catholic church that monks, operating from the premise that God is a God of order and that we can study the universe that he has created, learned rigorous experimentation and the connection between cause and effect (See James Hannam, The Genesis of Science: How the Christian Middle Ages Launched the Scientific Revolution). This later became the foundation of science in the west.
Obviously, the question comes up – What about all the ancient philosophy from India or the great pyramids of Egypt or gunpowder in China? Stanley Jaki in his book The Origin of Science and the Science of Its Origin says:
“This historiography of science has still to face up honestly to the problem of why three great ancient cultures (China, India, and Egypt) display, independently of one another, a similar pattern vis-a-vis science. The pattern is the stillbirth of science in each of them in spite of the availability of talents, social organization, and peace—the standard explanatory devices furnished by all-knowing sociologies of science on which that historiography relies ever more heavily.”
Why did science not develop further in these cultures? According to scholars like Pierre Duhem, Stanley Jaki, and Robert Merton, it’s because these cultures could not truly grasp the fact that God made the universe, and it was orderly. The universe was subject to his order. It was not alive on its own. Human beings were God’s special creation and not just one of the animals. Also, time was not cyclical but linear. All these and more come straight from the Bible. Because the Bible was lacking in these cultures, science could get no further. Yes, the Chinese invented gunpower, but they could not take it further – What makes gunpowder work? How will it react with other chemicals? (See The Soul of Science by Pearcy and Thaxton).
So, what about Galileo? It is correct that in 1616 that the Roman Catholic church affirmed that the Copernican theory that the earth goes around the sun (heliocentrism) was false and heretical. About 16 years later, Galileo was charged with heresy and told to recant, which he supposedly did while gritting his teeth. This is also not true. In fact, the reigning theory was the Ptolemaic view (geocentrism), which was based on the Aristotelian physics. Barely 10 astronomers went along with Copernicus’ theory, which had no physics to back it up. Ever since Thomas Aquinas had backed up Aristotelian philosophy, the church was stuck with it. In other words, the church was defending Aristotelian science rather than opposing Galileo. Plus, he had an abrasive personality. He had tried to tell the theologians how to do their job! That was a big no no! Here’s the point: The church should never attach itself with any particular view of the world. It’s alright to learn and adapt, but don’t make it on the same level as the Bible.
Unfortunately, science was supposed to be an independent enterprise, but now it is again at the mercy of secular professors and avowed atheists. Now, if you question “science,” you are told that you are not a scientist. By the way, that is known as the “no true Scotsman” fallacy. Another one that we have heard a lot lately – “Science tells us…” That is known as a “reification fallacy” where people assign personal qualities to an abstract idea. Science doesn’t tell us anything, but scientists can.
In the next few weeks, we will see the connection between the Bible and Science (Friar and Patterson):
- Cosmology (We will focus on the first few chapters of Genesis for this and the following points)
- Physics (Matter and Time)
- Chemistry (Atoms and Molecules)
- Biology (Cell structure and design in nature)
- History (Adam and Eve, Noah’s Flood, Abraham and the people of God, the coming of Christ and his Resurrection)
What happens when we continue to reject the Creator God? 21 because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things. 24 Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves, 25 who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
Invitation: What do you believe? Are you saved? Do you know someone who is struggling in their faith? Are you praying for them?
SACRED by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: How many parents have told your kids not to let strangers into the house or even tell them that you are away when you’re gone? Nicole recounts a time when her parents were away, and this man knocked on their door in the evening. Her dad had helped him out sometime back at his office and he had somehow found out where he lived. Nicole told him that her parents were busy and could not come to the door. So, he went down the driveway and kept pacing up and down the sidewalk. Little while later, he came back to the door and before Nicole could get to it, her brother opened the door. The man asked for their dad again and he blurted out, “They’re not here.” Nicole quickly called a neighbor who lived around the corner and the man finally left. As you know, we are in our series on apologetics called CONTEND. In this message, we’re going to learn why it is essential to be discerning against those who come knocking on our door, claiming to be like us when they are doctrinally opposed to us. Main point: Doctrine is often looked upon as old fashioned, divisive, and boring. To the contrary, doctrine is essential to the gospel and impacts eternity. Doctrines have to be learned, defended, and reaffirmed, especially the first-rank ones. The Holy Spirit guides us in true doctrine.
2 John 7 “For many deceivers have gone out into the world who do not confess Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh. This is a deceiver and an antichrist.”
Context: Very early in the life of the church, first-rank doctrines were under attack. What are first-rank or first level doctrines? Per Mohler and Ortlund (separate works), these are the Trinity, the full deity and humanity of Jesus Christ, justification by faith, and the authority of Scripture. Of course, there was not a full-on attack against these doctrines in the earliest days, but the attack had begun. John the apostle referred to the attackers as a “deceiver” and an “antichrist.” Then he reminded the readers – 8 “Look to yourselves, that we do not lose those things we worked for, but that we may receive a full reward.” In other words, the doctrines that have been worked out so carefully should not be cast aside so easily. Instead, verse 9 “Whoever transgresses and does not abide in the doctrine of Christ does not have God. He who abides in the doctrine of Christ has both the Father and the Son.” Here we notice that the first-rank doctrines of the Trinity and Christology are being defended and reaffirmed. But wait, here comes a warning – 10 “If anyone comes to you and does not bring this doctrine, do not receive him into your house nor greet him; 11 for he who greets him shares in his evil deeds.” What a strong indictment against those who deny these first-rank doctrines!
In this message I want to deal with 2 groups who are known for coming to our houses with their so called “gospel” – Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) and Jehovah’s Witnesses. Both claim Christianity and both claim the Bible as their book as well, but they allege that it has been corrupted. Also, both add their own literature to the Bible and claim that it is on the same level:
- Mormon: The Book of Mormon, the Doctrines and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price.
- Jehovah’s Witnesses: New World Translation and their Watchtower Bible and Tract Society with their 2 magazines – “Watchtower” and “Awake.”
In the chart that I have shared with you over the past few weeks, the challenge is again to the “Authority” of the Bible, primarily on that matter of the “Canon.” By the way, both of these movements are what scholars refer to as the “New Religious Movements (Terry Muck). They have cropped up in the past 200 years. Although many smaller movements can be named, these fall into the category of the “reinterpretation” or “recovery” of true Christianity. In other words, they claim Christianity as their roots, but they also claim that they are restoring Christianity to its true roots. How do we determine whether or not they are indeed true?
I. External-Verification (Historical Accuracy & Unity and Coherence):
- To begin with, we have 100% of the text of the Old Testament and New Testament. This is done through a discipline called textual criticism. I have dedicated my life to the NT text.
- Both the OT and NT make tons of references to lands and regions, kings and rulers, cities and towns, mountains and valleys, rivers and seas, buildings and monuments, events and dates, treaties and policies, customs and traditions, etc. We can verify each of them. I’ve been to Israel many times and seen many of these places – Tel Dan in the north to Elath in the south, Joppa in the west to the Dead Sea in the east. I’ve been to Greece and stood on Mars Hill where Paul preached. I can go on and on.
- Most important verification is the Resurrection of Jesus. Something happened that turned those fearful disciples into bold martyrs. History was divided into 2 halves!
Unity and Coherence
- Over 40 authors from different backgrounds, places, and historical situations.
- Nonetheless, from the first book to the last, the message is about God’s salvation of humanity through his son Jesus Christ. I have talked about this endlessly.
2. Mormon Writings:
Historical Accuracy & Unity and Coherence
- Although they believe the Bible, according to their Article of Faith 8, the Latter-Day Saints “believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God.” Also, in their History of the Church 4:461, it is claimed that Joseph Smith called it “the most correct of any book on earth.”
- To begin with, who was Joseph Smith? It is claimed that it all began in 1820 when a 14-year-old boy in up-state New York prayed that God would show him which church to join from among the Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians. As he prayed in a nearby grove, an overpowering force bound his body and tongue, and thick darkness came upon him, so that he could not speak. Just when he thought that he was going to die, a pillar of fire came down from heaven and he saw the Father and the Son as separate men but just alike, standing before him. The Son told him not to join any church but wait on further revelation. Few years later, the angel Moroni appeared to him in 1823 and promised that he would find a book of gold plates, which he claimed to find in some nearby hill in 1827. The book was supposedly in “reformed Egyptian,” which no one knows what that language is, and the book of Mormon was published in 1830.
- The story in the book is about the coming of the Hebrews to settle in the Americas. Apparently, their life between 6th century BC and 5th century AD are described in the book. There is no historical evidence for this. Also, it is claimed that Jesus came here to preach to them after his resurrection. Those who received became the Nephites and those who rejected became the Lamanites, who are supposedly the ancestors of the Native Americans. There were battles between the two groups and the Nephites were gone, but not before the plates of the recordings were buried by Moroni, the son of Mormon, the last Nephite general. Again, there is zero historical evidence for all this.
- Overall, it is written in a pseudo-translation pretending to be written in the style of the King James Version.
3. Jehovah’s Witnesses literature:
Historical Accuracy & Unity and Coherence
- Although they believe the Bible, they use their own translation, claiming that ours is corrupt. In fact, they believe that the Watchtower Society is “the one and only channel which the Lord has used in dispensing his truth continually since the beginning of the harvest period…” (April 1, 1919).
- In the late 19th century, a young man in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania named Charles Taze Russell began a class called the “Millennial Dawn Bible Study.” He was a Presbyterian, but found the doctrines of predestination, eternal damnation, and the Trinity troublesome. He got some of his ideas from the Adventists and others who taught on prophecy, and he put them together in his literature which later became part of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.
- He claimed that Christ’s invisible “second presence” had happened in 1874 and the harvesting period had ended in 1878. The “end of the Gentiles” time would take place in 1914. That year came and went, but it was claimed that the invisible occurrence had happened, and Satan was thrown out of heaven. Now Jesus had begun his heavenly rule and starting in 1918, the 144,000 were in the heavenly kingdom. Russell died in 1916 and the leadership passed on to Joseph Franklin Rutherford. He was the one who “solved” the problem of the 144,000, by claiming that they are the “anointed ones” as opposed to the “great crowd” which represents all the Jehovah’s Witnesses (name chosen in 1931).
- The writings of Russell and Rutherford are not used anymore. Instead, it’s the materials from the Watchtower Society. Who writes them? The leadership but anonymously since 1942.
You would think that the external verification would be enough to prove that the Bible alone is the true Word of God. Unfortunately, both groups claim in one way or another the witness of the Holy Spirit. This is not a problem for us. Instead, it is a must for believers. Because of our sinful minds and hearts, the Holy Spirit has to illumine and demonstrate the truth of God’s Word:
- Illumination – show us the truth of God’s Word.
- Demonstration – testify to us that it is the truth.
The Holy Spirit doesn’t give new evidence. He is the cause of faith not the reason.
1 John 4 1 “Beloved do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God; because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 2 By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God, 3and every spirit that does not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God. And this is the spirit of the Antichrist, which you have heard was coming, and is now already in the world.”
II. Internal Witness of the Holy Spirit:
- Bible: We’ve obviously seen what the Holy Spirit has to say, especially about the Trinity and Christ.
- Mormon Writings:
- Trinity is denied. Their trinity is 3 persons united in purpose not being. Instead, polytheism is affirmed since they claim that there are many gods in different parts of the universe.
- The Heavenly Father was a man at one time who was created by a god, who was also created by another god. He passed through degrees of sanctification to become God. God was once a man like we are and that humans can become like God is now (Snow).
- Jesus was a product of Heavenly Father and mother. They deny this but Satan was a spirit brother of Jesus through another wife of the Heavenly Father.
- His sacrifice is not sufficient. Ordinances and covenants in the temple are necessary for godhood in the Celestial Kingdom.
- Much more.
3. Jehovah’s Witnesses Literature:
- Trinity is denied. Jehovah is the only god.
- Jesus was created as Michael the Archangel. He became the Son at baptism. Hence, they read John 1:1 as “a god,” which is grammatically and theologically false. Also, the Holy Spirit is God’s active force.
- Jesus died only for Adam’s sin, not for all of humanity.
- No hell. Instead, paradise will be for a select few and the rest will be annihilated.
Invitation: Can you discern? Does doctrine matter? Is Christ your Savior and King? Is the Holy Spirit in you testifying to the truth?
CANON by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: Last month, June 2021, an Italian artist named Salvatore Garau put up a sculptor at an auction titled “lo Sono,” meaning “I am.” He set the opening bid between $6000 to $9000. Only problem was that it was an invisible piece. According to Garau, “The vacuum is nothing more than a space full of energy, and even if we empty it and there is nothing left, according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, that nothing has a weight…Therefore, it has energy that is condensed and transformed into particles, that is, into us.” People laughed about it. Some put pictures online of their invisible pieces. Believe it or not, someone bought it for $18,300! Here’s where the story takes a turn. Couple of days ago, Tom Miller, a Florida-based performance artist, claimed that Garau stole his idea. Back in 2016, he had assembled an invisible piece titled “Nothing” over 5 days. Miller has hired an attorney. How does this connect with our message in our series titled “CONTEND?” Just because you believe it, it doesn’t make it right. Main point: The Bible is not one person’s imagination of truth and reality. It is a collection of God’s words through various individuals in various times and in various ways regarding one thing – the coming of his son. Jesus is God’s son who came as a real historical person in a real historical place and time to fulfill God’s promise of salvation for all humanity.
Hebrews 1 1 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds;
Context: What a powerful declaration of the special revelation of God through the ages! If you remember the chart I have created, so far, we worked up. The Scriptures are authoritative because they were inspired by God and hence inerrant. They were inspired because they were the special revelation of God. Now, we need to work down. Because the scriptures were authoritative, they were affirmed as canonical by the church. The Old Testament canon was already set before the New Testament was written and the New Testament canon was affirmed by the church in due time. Of course, there are certain questions that have been raised regarding canonicity. Here are some questions that we received in our survey:
- Why are there more books in certain Bibles?
- Is there any value in the books that have not been included?
- Isn’t the process of canonization similar to other religions?
In answering these questions, I want us to compare the biblical canon to the Buddhist canon. In other words, how do the Buddhist religious books compare to the Bible.
- Main Character:
A. Buddhist Religious Books
- Buddha or Word of the Buddha
- There was one – Siddhartha Gautama from Northern India in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. He was a prince. For various reasons, his father would not let him venture out of the palace. He did not know what suffering was. He was married and had a child. One day, at the age of 29, he asked his charioteer to take him for a ride. On the way, he was exposed to “Four Sights” – an old man, a sick man, and a funeral procession. In other words, he was exposed to suffering. The fourth sight was a Hindu sadhu who seemed very peaceful. He decided to become one and left his wife and son. This was the “Great Renunciation.” He went searching for the truth and even tried to scourge himself. Finally, at age 35, he sat under a pipal tree to meditate. All night, he fought against the evil tempter Mara. As a result, he experienced enlightenment and the path to the end of suffering.
- This path begins with 4 Noble Truths: 1. Existence is suffering (dukkha) 2. Suffering is caused by desire (tanha). 3. Liberation (nirvana) from suffering and desire is possible. 4. The Eightfold path is the way to escape – right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right living, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. Basically, they are morality, concentration, and wisdom.
- After this he gained some disciples and began preaching his way to enlightenment.
- Basically, his teachings were rooted in Hinduism, Jainism, and other ancient religions. There was a lot of focus on suffering, meditation, and following wise teachers. Karma was again important. The goal was to progress through the reincarnation cycles and escape to Nirvana. Unlike Hinduism, which focuses on coming back in the next life, Buddhism focuses on the continuation of pure karma from one life to another.
- But, there were many other Buddhas. Their common teachings together are the buddhavacana or the word of the Buddha. This is the essence of the eternal Dharma or teachings.
- From start to finish, the Bible is about Jesus. Listen again to Hebrews 1 2 “has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; 3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power…”
- That’s why when Jesus began his ministry, he said in Matthew 5:17 “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.” After he rose from the grave, he met some of the disciples on the road to Emmaus in Luke 24 25 Then He said to them, “O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 26 Ought not the Christ to have suffered these things and to enter into His glory?” 27 And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself.
A. Buddhist Religious Books
- There are 3 canons based on the three main traditions: Theravada, Mahayana, and Tibetan Buddhism.
- Theravada (way of the elders) claims to be the earliest and closest to the early Buddhist community. It is found in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia (Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Kampuchea).
- Mahayana began around the time of Christ and spread from India to China, Korea, and Japan. It claims to be superior to Theravada. Unlike the Indian focus on nirvana, the Chinese and Japanese focus was more on enlightenment.
- The Tibetan Buddhism or Vajrayana came in the 7th century to Tibet, and it is found in India, Nepal, and Bhutan. It is more focused on Indian tantric practices. These include mudras (physical postures), mantras (magical phrases), calling on ghosts, demons, and territorial spirits. Their leader is the Dalai Lama, who is considered to be a reincarnation of the previous 13 Dalai Lamas and is believed to be connected to Buddha.
- Based on the 3 traditions, there are 3 different canons:
#1. Theravada – Pali Canon which has the Tripitaka (3 baskets) containing Buddha’s teachings, monastic codes, and philosophical analysis. They were passed down orally and finally penned 400 years later and agreed upon 500 more years later. This is much larger than the Bible, 11 times. This is how the Ajanta and Ellora Caves came to be. They were places for monks to study, work, and meditate.
#2. Mahayana – It has the Pali canon and many more which it considers to be superior. It has about 100,000 pages in printed form. They are like libraries. This where the Lotus Sutra comes in, if you’ve heard of it.
#3. Tibetan – part of the Mahayana tradition and other texts.
- Buddhism has also spread to the west. It is heavily influenced by Japanese Buddhism and a new kind of Buddhism is emerging. It is a buffet style Buddhism, which tinkers with Zen Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism, even Jodo (pure land) Buddhism.
- Old Testament – 4 Canons (Jewish, Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Orthodox)
- Jewish – The traditional number of books is 24. Referred to as Mikra (that which is read) or Tanakh [T, N, K = Torah (instruction/law), Nevi’im (prophets), Kethuvim (writings)]
- Protestant – The traditional number of the books is 39. It retains the order of the LXX but the text is based on the Hebrew Bible.
- Roman Catholic – The traditional number of books is 49. It is based on the Alexandrian canon of the LXX. The order of books varies. It is based on current editions, such as the Jerusalem Bible and the New American Bible. The appendix of the Latin Vulgate contains 3 Esdras, 4 Esdras, and the Prayer of Manasseh.
- Orthodox – The traditional number of the books is 53. It is based on larger versions of the LXX. “Orthodox” here refers to the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches (the Slavonic Bible being the traditional text). In Orthodox Bibles, 4 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasseh-and in Slavonic, 3 Esdras are in an appendix.
- The extra books found in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox canons are not part of the Jewish canon. According to Josephus, the 24 were it for the Jewish canon.
- The Essenes from Qumran only cite from the Jewish canonical books and only wrote commentaries on them.
- Philo (20BC – 40AD) the Jewish scholar only cites from the canonical books. So also, the NT authors stick to the canonical books. Jude quotes from 1 Enoch but it was not claimed to be canonical.
- The extra books were added by the RC and Orthodox as important to certain Jewish people.
- The New Testament canon of 27 books have remained the same throughout. The ones claimed recently are gnostic heretical books.
- Purpose (Adapted from Thane Hutcherson Ury)
|A. Buddhist Religious Books||B. Bible|
|1. No personal god||1. God wants us to know him.|
|2. History is cyclical. No creation||2. History is linear. Yes, creation|
|3. Main problem is suffering||3. Main problem is sin|
|4. Salvation is from inside||4. Salvation is from above|
|5. Ultimate goal is Nirvana||5. Ultimate goal is relationship with God|
|6. It all happened under a tree||6. It all happened on a tree|
|7. No judgment||7. Day appointed for judgment|
|8. No life after death||8. Eternal Life|
|9. Be lamps to yourself||9. Shine the light of Jesus|
|10.Without Buddha, still Buddhism||10.No Christianity without Christ|
3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. The writer then goes on to compare Jesus to the Torah, Moses, the Promised Land, the priests, Melchizedek, the sacrifices, and the covenant.
Invitation: Who would you rather trust? Someone who imagined or someone who has been promised and who came in definite time and place and fulfilled that promise? Are you saved? Do you know Jesus as your Savior and King?
INSPIRATION by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: There’s an urban legend out there about a man, his car, and vanilla ice cream. By the way, an urban legend is a tall tale with a small truth. There is a small truth in this story. One day a famous car company received a complaint from a man that his car did not like vanilla ice cream. Of course, they dismissed it as a prank, but the man wrote back – the car does not start when he gets vanilla ice cream, but if it’s any other flavor, then its fine. So, just to play along, they sent an engineer to check on it. Sure enough, first day, he got vanilla and it didn’t start. Next day, he got chocolate/strawberry and it started right up! Day after, vanilla and it didn’t start! He called back to the head office and said that its true! The next day, he decided to investigate the matter further. He began to document every detail of the man’s routine. Then, he realized what was happening. The engine was experiencing a vapor lock, a problem that happened when liquid fuel became gas in the fuel delivery system of the old engines, unlike the fuel injection ones of todat. It would obstruct the fuel pump causing a loss of power. Given a few extra minutes, the obstruction would clear and it would start up. The reason it didn’t start right away when the man got vanilla ice cream was because vanilla ice cream being popular had plenty of tubs and easily accessible. He had to wait for the attendant to bring him the other flavors and it gave more time for the fuel to vaporize. It had nothing to do with the flavor of ice cream. The point is this – he sort of had a correct diagnosis of the problem, but a completely wrong prescription. We are in our apologetics series called CONTEND and we are looking at what makes the Bible different from other religious books. Main point: For a book to be inspired, it should provide more than just the correct diagnosis of the human problem. It should also provide the correct prescription. The Bible is the only book that provides both. It not only tells us that we are lost in sin, but it also points us to God’s Savior named Jesus.
2 Timothy 3:16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God…”
Context: Paul wrote those very important words to Timothy, his son in the ministry. “All Scripture” = pasa graphe. Some scholars believe that this refers only to the Old Testament and others believe that it refers to both the Old and New Testament. I believe that even if Paul didn’t mean this at that point, by process of deduction from 2 Peter 3, we can claim that it includes both the Old and the New Testament – 15 “and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, 16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures.” Here the questions are brought up:
- Can other religious books claim to be Inspired?
- Can there be truth in other religious books?
Keep in mind our chart in this miniseries. Last weekend, we focused on Revelation and the difference between how the Bible was given and how the Quran was given. This weekend, we will focus on INSPIRATION and whether there is any truth in the Hindu religious books.
Nature of the books:
- Hindu Religious Books (taken from Timothy Tennent and others):
- No human authorship and historical origins of the most sacred texts.
- True knowledge is eternally reverberating through the universe as a resonating sound known as “anahata sabda” = unstruck sound. This is symbolized by the sound “Om.” It is the essence of ultimate reality or consciousness. It is the self. It is a sacred symbol that is chanted by itself or before and after times of worship.
- Is Om associated with God? Can be but not necessarily.
- Unlike Christianity and the Bible which has a linear time, Hinduism depicts the world as going through endless cycles of creation and destruction, with no beginning or end. At the dawn of each unending creation cycles (yug), the sages rehear the sacred sound which is converted into knowledge and that’s the sacred tradition.
- These traditions were passed down orally and later written down as the 4 Vedas (knowledge) – Rig (hymns), Sama (chants), Yajur (sacred formulas), and Atharva (spells). They are not 4 separate books, but 4 recensions of the same common core material.
- Next is the Brahamans, commentary on the Vedas. This is followed by the Aranyakas, to be read in the forest. Finally, the Upanishads, philosophical and speculative material. It means “to sit down near” the guru.
- All this is the Sruti, that which is heard. It is not rooted in history.
- There could be more, the mysterious “fifth Veda.”
- Then, there is the Smriti, that which is remembered. It is written by human authors and rooted in history.
- It is secondary to Sruti.
- This includes the philosophical Sutras, the Law books, the Puranas, the Mahabharata with the Bhagavat Gita, and the Ramayana.
- God revealing himself is found in the Smriti, especially the Gita where Krishna reveals himself to his follower Arjuna.
“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God…” We are familiar with the words “inspire” or “inspiring,” but they mean very different things than what Paul meant here. The former imply filling someone with the urge or ability to do something good or creative. You can feel inspired by reading a good book. You can inspire others to take on a challenge in their life, but inspiration here is “theopneustos” = God breathed or God’s spiration. Here the word is referring to something that God did 2 other times in history:
- Creation of the world – Psalm 33:6 “By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth.”
- Creation of human beings – Genesis 2:7 “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.”
So also, the creation of his word is the supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit on the writers of the Scriptures that resulted in their writings being an accurate record of the special revelation, i.e., the Word of God (this discussion based on Erikson).
(Note: Revelation vs Inspiration = God to human writer vs human writer to others, then and now.)
How did God breathe his word? Did the writers have a much deeper walk with God than the rest of the people? Did the writers have a heightened sense of God’s thoughts? By inspiration we mean that God directed the thoughts of the writers so that they were exactly his thoughts. God used the personalities, gifts, trainings, and experiences of the writers, but the final choice of the words was exactly what he wanted in his providential guidance in the writer’s life and his purposes in the world. 2 Peter 1:21 “for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.” Hence, we hold to the verbal-plenary view of inspiration, i.e., words and the whole message.
Bottom line: there is a big difference between how the Bible was given and how the Hindu religious books came together.
Purpose of the books:
- Hindu Religious Books:
- There is wisdom found here and there, but there is no atonement or redemption.
- There is the promise to find God within oneself but it does not deal with sin.
- Based on fear of gods, spirits, never-ending rituals, and a billion reincarnations to escape the circle of life.
- It has oscillated between monotheism, henotheism, polytheism, and animism.
- Overall, accept the Vedas, caste system, and worship of different gods and goddesses and protection of cows.
- The scriptures can be divided into 3 ways: 1. The way of works (karma marga); 2. The way of knowledge (gyana marga); and 3. the way of devotion (bhakti marga). The first 2 are Sruti and the last one is Smriti. Therefore, the Hare Krishna movement leans heavily on the Gita, which is Smriti. Some of this was espoused by the Beatles, Beach Boys, and others.
- The point is that Hinduism deals with the problem of sin but has no solution for it.
- There is karma (what you sow is what you reap), samsara (cycle of life), and moksha (liberation out of life into the Brahman and nothingness/emptiness) through many reincarnations.
- There’s so much more that I do not have time to go into here.
Why did God breathe the scriptures? Back up to verse 14 “But you must continue in the things which you have learned and been assured of, knowing from whom you have learnedthem, 15 and that from childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.” 16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.” The Scriptures not only make us wise unto salvation, but also help us to mature and become equipped for every good work.
In my opening illustration, I mentioned that the diagnosis is there but no prescription.
“From the unreal, lead me to the real! From darkness, lead me to the light! From death, lead me to immortality!” (Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28)
John 14:6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.” In that statement, you have the Way (Karma Marga), Truth (Gyana Marga), and Life (Bhakti Marga).
Invitation: What are you searching for? Are you saved? Have you met Jesus Christ?
REVELATION by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: What if you were to find a brown paper sack with ten thousand dollars in ten- and twenty-dollar bills in the bushes where you parked your car? What if you go to visit a rich uncle who gives you a check for ten thousand dollars? What’s the similarity? They are both leave you with ten thousand dollars. What’s the difference? One could get you shot or land in jail and the other fills your heart with love and gratefulness for your uncle. What makes the difference? How did you come across it? In our series called “CONTEND,” we are spending the next few weeks on some of your questions regarding the Bible. Some of you asked, “Is the Qur’an for the Muslims what the Bible is for the Christians?” “Aren’t all religions basically saying the same things in their holy books?” Main point: Before we can understand and evaluate the Content of any holy book, we need to understand the form of its Revelation. In other words, before we can open and decide if a holy book is God’s word, we need to understand how it came to us. Unlike other holy books, biblical revelation testifies to God’s holiness, love, and grace towards fallen sinful human beings. It is his rescue manual to save us and draw us to himself.
Jeremiah 1:9 Then the LORD put forth His hand and touched my mouth, and the LORD said to me: “Behold, I have put My words in your mouth.” Jeremiah 30 1 The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD, saying, 2 “Thus speaks the LORD God of Israel, saying: ‘Write in a book for yourself all the words that I have spoken to you.”
Context: Last week, we learned that “Authority is the basic theological issue into which discussions of biblical revelation, inspiration, and interpretation finally run” (J.I. Packer).
- The Bible has to be obeyed (Application) because it is Authoritative.
- Before you can properly apply, you have to correctly interpret it (Interpretation).
- The Authority only extends to the Canonical books because they alone were recognized by the church.
- They alone were recognized by the church as Canonical because they alone were Inspired.
- Because they are Inspired, they are Inerrant.
- They are Inspired and Inerrant because they were Revealed by God through the Holy Spirit to his people.
In today’s message, our focus is on REVELATION, especially Special Revelation. If you remember, we need more than General Revelation (Nature, History, Human Nature). We also need specific instructions regarding God’s plan of salvation. I briefly touched on how the 66 books of the Bible have information in them, which is Personal, Anthropic, and Analogical. Sometimes, it is historical acts (Abraham and Isaac; Babylonian exile), other times, it is divine speech (“The word of the Lord came to me…”), and then there is the major revelation – the incarnation of Jesus. Muslim apologists challenge the biblical claim of special revelation on 2 points:
- They claim that how the Qur’an was revealed is far superior to how the Bible was revealed.
- Moreover, they claim that the Bible is no longer God’s revelation because it has been corrupted by Jewish people and Christians.
Others even try to be dismissive and claim that they’re all the same.
To answer these charges, we need to compare the Events and the Content of the 2 revelations (Taken from Ida Glaser’s works and my dad’s many sermons):
A. Qur’an – It is claimed that it came to one man, a prophet named Muhammad from the age of 40 until his death, 23 years later. The account is found in the Hadith. They are reports of what Muhammad said or did. The Qur’an is interpreted through the Hadith which were collected 200-300 years after his death. The Qur’an is the Wahy, the pure revelation of God. It exists in heaven and everything else, including translations, is just interpretation or rendition. Ilham is God revealing his knowledge into the mind of the person. This is like the Biblical doctrine of inspiration. Under wahy, there is no such thing as the “original message” or “context” or the “true words” of the prophet Mohammed; the Qur’an is the word of God. There are debates about the Hadiths right now. Also, there are commentaries on the Qur’an. Since, there is no context, not much is left to interpret, only application. Also, there are differences and many don’t interact with each other. Nonetheless, listen to the Hadith Sahih al-Bukhari 1:3 –
The first revelation that was granted to the Messenger of God was the true vision of sleep, so that he never saw a vision but the truth of it shone forth like the bright gleam of dawn. Then solitude became dear to him and he used to seclude himself in the cave of Hira, where he would devote himself to Divine worship for several nights before coming back to his family. He would take provisions for this purpose, then he would return to Khadijah (first wife) and get some more provisions for a similar (period), until the Truth (Gabriel) came to him while he was in the cave of Hira. The Angel came to him and said, ‘Read’. He said, ‘I am not one of those who can read.’
And he continued ‘Then he (the Angel) took hold of me and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it anymore, after which he let me go and said, ‘Read’. When I replied, ‘I am not one of those who can read’, he took hold of me and pressed me a second time so hard that I could not bear it anymore, then he let me go again and said, ‘Read’. I said,’ l am not one of those who can read’.
The Prophet continued: ‘Then he took hold of me and pressed me a third time, then he let me go and said, “Read in the name of thy Lord who creates―creates man from a clot. Read, and thy Lord is most Generous” (from Surah 96:1-3).
The Messenger of God returned with this (message), his heart trembling, and he went to Khadijah, daughter of Khuwailid and said, ‘Wrap me up, wrap me up’. So they wrapped him up until the awe had left him.
In al-Bukhari 1:2, we find more information regarding these events:
Aishah, the mother of the faithful reported that Harith ibn Hisham asked the Messenger of God, ‘O Messenger of God, how does the revelation come to thee?’ The Messenger of God said, ‘Sometimes it comes to me like the ringing of a bell, and that is the type which is the hardest on me; then he (the Angel) departs from me and I retain in memory from him what he said. At times the Angel comes to me in the likeness of a man and speaks to me and I retain in memory what he says.’ Aishah said: ‘And I saw him when revelation descended on him on a severely cold day; when it departed from him his forehead dripped with sweat.’
It is claimed that Muhammad’s illiteracy is the greatest proof of the miracle of the Qur’an, as it is the highest style of Arabic poetry. Also, only the Arabic Quran is authoritative. This is the language in which it was given, and the translations involve interpretation, which can be distorted. School kids are told to memorize the Quran in Arabic even in countries where Arabic is not the main language. Recitation of the Quran must be in Arabic. The original is in the heaven and was
- The Bible was written by 40 independent writers.
- It was written over a time span of 1500 years.
- They wrote it in 3 different languages – Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic.
- The writers lived in 3 different continents – Asia, Africa, and Europe – Moses wrote in the desert of Sinai, Daniel from exile in Babylon, and Ezra in the ruined city of Jerusalem, Paul wrote in a prison in Rome, and John on the island of Patmos.
- They had 20 different occupations – kings, a general, at least 2 fishermen, a musician, a priest, a tax collector, a medical doctor, a judge – Moses was a shepherd, Solomon was a king, Matthew was a tax collector, Luke was a medical doctor, and Paul was a scholar/missionary/tentmaker.
- It has a cast of 2,930 characters in 1,551 places.
- Its message is expressed in all literary forms – poetry, prose, speech, lists, etc.
- There were certain qualifications for prophets in the Old Testament.
- It was written under many different circumstances – Joshua wrote while invading the land of Canaan, David wrote during a time of war, Jeremiah wrote at the sorrowful time of Israel’s downfall, Peter wrote while Israel was under Roman domination.
- Sometimes, it is a warning (Surah 18:4). Other times, it is a reminder (Surah 81:27). Yet other times, it is a guide and a witness (Surah 46:12).
- No organization. It is claimed that the sections can be divided into Mecca, Medina, and Mecca. It is based on information from much later that is disputed.
- No such thing as the Fall. Man is just forgetful and must be reminded.
- Those who disregard or reject the Qur’an will face the judgment to come.
- Ultimately, it is God’s law for man and submission is the way.
- No mediation or sacrifice is needed. God is merciful.
- Many times, it makes references to events from the Old and the New Testament. In fact, it needs the bible to make sense of many of the references regarding Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Lot, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Ezekiel, Job, Jonah, Zechariah (father of John the Baptist), John the Baptist, and Jesus.
- It even reprimands the Jewish people and the Christians for refusing to accept Muhammad as “the prophet like Moses,” “altogether lovely” from Song of Solomon, and the paraclete (another comforter). Sometimes, it refers to us as “the people of the Book” and misunderstand the Trinity! “O people of the Book! commit no excesses in your religion…so believe in Allah and His Apostles. Say not “Trinity”: desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One Allah:” (Surah 4:171-172) “And when God said, “O Jesus son of Mary! Didst thou say unto mankind, “Take me and my mother as gods apart from God?” [Jesus son of Mary] said, “Glory be to Thee! It is not for me to utter that to which I have no right.” (Surah 5:116-118)
- Mainly a narrative which implies a history and encounter between God and his people. Yes, there are plenty of commands/laws, but they are in a context.
- Prayers are a two-way relationship.
- Wisdom and truth are to help us live with God’s guidance.
- Much emphasis on Jesus because it is the main point!
- Human beings were made in the image of God with the ability to have a relationship with him. In fact, that is the goal of God for us.
- We have fallen because of sin. We cannot reach God. He must reach down to us.
- God is holy. He will punish sin. We cannot handle sin and hence, he must punish a suitable substitute. Only his Son could qualify. The central theme of the Bible is Jesus Christ – In the OT Christ is anticipated and in the NT he is realized.
- There is just one message – Our problem is SIN and the answer is SALVATION through Jesus Christ.
- This drama of redemption was communicated throughout the ages – Moses wrote as he led the people to the Promsied Land, Isaiah wrote to warn the people of Israel of God’s judgment against their sins, Zechariah wrote to encourage a disheartened Israel who returned from Babylonian exile, Paul wrote addressing problems in different Asian and European churches, and Matthew wrote to prove to the Jews that Jesus is the Messiah. They are all written in the context of God’s relationship with human beings.
- One great example is the story of Cain and Abel: “But recite unto them with truth the tale of the two sons of Adam, how they offered each a sacrifice, and it was accepted from the one of them and it was not accepted from the other. (The one) said: I will surely kill thee. (The other) answered: Allah accepts only from those who ward off (evil). Even if thou stretch out thy hand against me to kill me, I shall not stretch out my hand against thee to kill thee, lo! I fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Lo! I would rather thou should bear the punishment of the sin against me and thine own sin and become one of the owners of the fire. That is the reward of evil-doers. But (the other’s) mind imposed on him the killing of his brother, so he slew him and became one of the losers. Then Allah sent a raven scratching up the ground, to show him how to hide his brother’s naked corpse. He said: Woe unto me! Am I not able to be as this raven and so hide my brother’s naked corpse? And he became repentant. For that cause We decreed for the Children of Israel that whosoever killeth a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind, and whoso saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind. Our messengers came unto them of old with clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty), but afterwards lo! many of them became prodigals in the earth.” (Surah 5:27-32)
The source of the raven scratching the ground is Jewish commentary (midrash) about how Adam and Eve wondered what to do with their dead son. The context is to warn the older brothers (Jewish people and Christians) of being jealous of the younger brother (Muslims). How about the original context? Cain disregarded God’s requirement for sacrifice. God disapproved Cain’s offering. Cain got angry. God confronted Cain. In envy, he killed his brother. God saw it all. He confronted Cain. He denied his sin. God cursed him. Cain pleaded for mercy. God put a mark on him and said to him in “Therefore, whoever kills Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.” What a world of difference!
Let’s go back to the opening where Adam and Eve couldn’t look God in the face. All of scripture is simply God getting us to look him in the face, in the eye. Numbers 6:23 “Speak to Aaron and his sons, saying, ‘This is the way you shall bless the children of Israel. Say to them: 24 “The LORD bless you and keep you; 25 The LORD make His face shine upon you, and be gracious to you;
John 14:9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?
2 Corinthians 4:6 “For it is the God who commanded light to shine out of darkness, who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.”
2 Corinthians 5. 17 “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new. 18 Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation, 19 that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation.”
Invitation: Are you looking God in the face? How do you see the Scriptures, Old and New Testaments? Are you saved?
AUTHORITY by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC
Introduction: Howard Hughes was a very successful American businessman. He made it big in the fields of engineering, aviation, and film making in the mid-1900s. Towards the end of his life, due to physical and mental issues, he became an eccentric and reclusive. Unbeknownst to Hughes, a journalist and novelist named Clifton Irving secured a contract with a large advance from a publishing house to write his autobiography. Irving claimed that he had exclusive interviews with Hughes, which was not true. At the last moment, Hughes and his lawyers stepped forward and exposed the whole thing as a fraud. Some people think that the Bible is nothing but a well-crafted and elaborate fraud on God perpetuated by the church to fleece the masses. In fact, here are some of the questions that you sent regarding the Bible: “Doesn’t the Bible have errors?” “What about all those books that did not make it into the Bible?” “What makes the Bible more special over other religious books?” “Aren’t all the copies of the New Testament corrupt?” “Why do the various translations disagree?” “Aren’t the biblical accounts similar to ancient myths?” It may seem like these questions regarding the Bible are all over the place, but, in reality, they are all connected to the issue of the Authority of the Bible. Main Point: The Bible is unlike any book in the world. It is the word of God without any errors, and it claims authority over our individual lives, church, and world. In fact, submission to scriptures is submission to God, more specifically to Jesus Christ.
Genesis 3:1 Now the serpent was more cunning than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said to the woman, “Has God indeed said, ‘You shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?”
Context: The first assault that Satan made against human beings in their relationship with God was regarding the Authority of the Word of God – “Has God indeed said…”That question had 2 implications: first, are you sure that’s what God said; second, are you sure you have to obey him. The first implication has to do with Revelation. The second has to do with Application. Both are a challenge to the Authority of God’s Word. To understand why the Bible is Authoritative and why we have to Obey it, we need to understand some of the other terms connected to the doctrine of Scripture. If you grew up in church, especially in evangelical circles, I’m sure you have heard a lot of big words regarding the Bible: Inerrancy, Inspiration, Revelation, Authority, Canon, Interpretation, Infallibility, and Application. What do they all mean and how are they connected? To begin with, the key word in all these words is Authority. J. I. Packer (famous evangelical theologian who authored “Knowing God”) wrote, “Authority is the basic theological issue into which discussions of biblical revelation, inspiration, and interpretation finally run.” I have come up with the following chart. It’s not perfect, but it helps us to understand how all the terms connect to Authority and to each other:
- The Bible has to be obeyed (Application) because it is Authoritative.
- Before you can properly apply, you have to correctly interpret it (Interpretation).
- The Authority only extends to the Canonical books because they alone were recognized by the church.
- They alone were recognized by the church as Canonical because they alone were Inspired.
- Because they are Inspired, they are Inerrant.
- They are Inspired and Inerrant because they were Revealed by God through the Holy Spirit to his people.
Let’s start at the beginning:
1. Revelation: This is God making himself known to human beings. There are 2 kinds –
i. Nature – Psalm 19:1 “The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handiwork.”
ii. History – Daniel 2:21 “And He changes the times and the seasons; he removes kings and raises up kings.”
iii. Human Nature – Romans 2:14 “for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves.” This is only about right and wrong, not salvation.
B. Special – We need more specific information in order to be saved. Acts 4:12 “Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” This is where the 66 books of the Bible come in. The information in them is Personal, Anthropic, and Analogical. They come as historical acts (Abraham and Isaac; Babylonian exile), divine speech (“The word of the Lord came to me…”) and the incarnation of Jesus.
2. Inspiration: This is the process by which revelation is recorded and communicated to God’s people. More specifically, “the supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit on selected individuals which rendered them the instruments of God for the infallible communication of his mind and will” (Charles Hodge). 2 Timothy 3 16 “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, (theopneustos = God-breathed) and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.” It is verbal (very words and not just concepts and subjects) and plenary (all is equally inspired even if certain parts are more beneficial than others). Also, it has both the human and divine elements (differences between the styles of the prophets and the writings of the gospels). 2 Peter 1:21 “for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.”
3. Inerrancy: “[Inerrancy] is a corollary of the doctrine of full inspiration of the Bible. The view of the Bible held and taught by the writers of Scripture implies the full truthfulness of the Bible” (Millard Erickson). Here’s the best definition: “When all the facts are known, the Scriptures in their original autographs and properly interpreted will be shown to be wholly true in everything that they affirm, whether that has to do with doctrine or morality or with the social, physical, or life sciences.” (Paul D. Feinberg)
Numbers 23:19 “God is not a man, that He should lie, nor a son of man, that He should repent. Has He said, and will He not do? Or has He spoken, and will He not make it good?”
Matthew 5:18 “For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.”
Note: Infallible – usually used by those who allow for the possibility that the Bible may not be fully free from error. They limit inerrancy to matters of faith and practice, especially salvation.
4. Authority – Here’s the definition of the “authority of Scripture” by Wayne Grudem – “The authority of Scripture means that all the words in Scripture are God’s words in such a way that to disbelieve or disobey any word of Scripture is to disbelieve or disobey God.” The Bible has both bestowed and inherent authority. Because of its content that points to the living true God, it has bestowed authority. Because it is inspired and inerrant, it has inherent authority. It has authority over individual lives, church, and culture. Submission to scriptures is submission to God, more specifically Jesus Christ.
Joshua 1:8 “This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success.”
1 Thessalonians 2:13 “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.”
5. Canon: Here “canon” refers to the list of authoritative books. It is often falsely alleged by the skeptics of Christianity that the church picked those books that fit their socio-political agenda. This is sensational history repeated in novels like The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown. That’s just not true! The canon was providentially set by the Holy Spirit and the church councils in the third century simply affirmed those books. The true evidence is seen in their use by God’s people from the first century. Very early on, they made lists of books that were deemed authoritative. Yes, there are certain Bibles that have extra books in the Old Testament. We will discuss that in the weeks ahead, but this is not so in the New Testament. Most of the extra-canonical books are Gnostic in origin.
6. Application: Ever since the end of the seventeenth century, there has been a growing shift in the western culture regarding the word authority. Prior to the coming of modernism, authority was looked upon as a benefit. Since then, it is looked upon as a hindrance to the free inquiry of truth. Authority is considered to be the opposite of truth. Obeying the Bible is seen as optional and even detrimental to freedom. We have to once again recognize that the Scriptures are not only authoritative as a top down authority, but they are very beneficial to us because they truly know us and can help us. Hebrews 4 12 “For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. 13 And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are naked and open to the eyes of Him to whom we must give account.”
7. Interpretation: In order to obey, scriptures have to be properly interpreted. We have to use all the possible methods that will help us get to the heart of what God is saying and what he is expecting of us. Does the work of the Holy Spirit in your heart guarantee accurate interpretation? How can two people taught by the Holy Spirit have conflicting views on a passage? Does the Holy Spirit give us deeper meaning that cannot be reached by a normal study of a passage? In what way does the Holy Spirit guide our understanding in the study of God’s Word? Only the saved can be enabled by the Holy Spirit to truly appreciate and apply the Word (I Corinthians 2:14; I Thessalonians 1:6).
We began with Satan’s challenge to the Authority of God’s Word in the lives of Adam and Eve. I want to close with his similar challenge in the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ. Matthew 4 3 Now when the tempter came to Him, he said, “If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.” 4 But He answered and said, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.’ ” 5 Then the devil took Him up into the holy city, set Him on the pinnacle of the temple, 6 and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down. For it is written: “He shall give His angels charge over you,’ and, ‘In their hands they shall bear you up, Lest you dash your foot against a stone.’ ” 7 Jesus said to him, “It is written again, ‘You shall not tempt the LORD your God.’ ” 8 Again, the devil took Him up on an exceedingly high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory. 9 And he said to Him, “All these things I will give You if You will fall down and worship me.” 10 Then Jesus said to him, “Away with you, Satan! For it is written, ‘You shall worship the LORD your God, and Him only you shall serve.’ ” 11 Then the devil left Him, and behold, angels came and ministered to Him.
Invitation: How much Authority does the Word of God have in your life? Ultimately, the Bible is God’s rescue manual to save you. Are you saved?
THE ANATOMY OF SALVATION by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson
Introduction: This past week, our Clearview staff was on our annual retreat in Arizona. We do this every year as a time to plan for the summer and the upcoming year. It is much more than just a time to get away. Although, in light of how extremely busy this past year and a half was, it was great to see everyone spending time with their families. Those who are close to the team and are helping out in some ministry at Clearview, you know what I mean. While there, our team produced an 8-week bible study through Nehemiah on rebuilding lives and ministry, and also filmed at some incredible locations that you will see in the CONTEND series. In today’s message, we will answer a question that was asked in various forms: “Why do some people reject the gospel?” “Can someone believe even if they have some questions?” “Recently, I have heard of many big names that have renounced their faith. Why is that?” Main point: Salvation is God’s miraculous work of grace through Jesus Christ in the life of person. Nonetheless, there are certain observable factors that lead to the decision to receive Christ and remain in him. Our upbringing and the evidences we encounter in life determine our degree of belief in Christianity.
Acts 26 12 “While thus occupied, as I journeyed to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests, 13 at midday, O king, along the road I saw a light from heaven, brighter than the sun, shining around me and those who journeyed with me. 14 And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.’ 15 So I said, “Who are You, Lord?’ And He said, ‘I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting.
Context: This is the conversion account of the Apostle Paul before King Agrippa. It is found 2 other times in the book of Acts (Acts 9 and 22). It is such a radical testimony! One moment, Paul was persecuting Christians, and the next moment, he was one. Listen to his own description of his pre-conversion life – Acts 26 9 “Indeed, I myself thought I must do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. 10 This I also did in Jerusalem, and many of the saints I shut up in prison, having received authority from the chief priests; and when they were put to death, I cast my vote against them. 11 And I punished them often in every synagogue and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities.” Paul was a killer! Paul had a license to kill from the religious authorities. As he was on one of his evil missions, God knocked him to the ground with a bright light from heaven and a question, not in Greek or Aramaic, but Hebrew – “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?” Paul’s response was – “Who are You, Lord?” What would cause such a quick and radical change in him? It was much more than just a bright light and a mysterious voice. Those were simply to bring him to his senses. Paul gave us the clue in verse 4 “My manner of life from my youth, which was spent from the beginning among my own nation at Jerusalem, all the Jews know. 5 They knew me from the first, if they were willing to testify, that according to the strictest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. 6 And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made by God to our fathers. 7 To this promise our twelve tribes, earnestly serving God night and day, hope to attain. For this hope’s sake, King Agrippa, I am accused by the Jews. 8 Why should it be thought incredible by you that God raises the dead?” In other words, all the necessary ingredients for his salvation were there, Paul was going in the wrong direction. God simply had to turn his around.
The real question before us is – “What makes a person decide if they want to receive the gospel?” Often, it is believed that salvation is a mystery. God draws people by his grace and opens their eyes to the truth. It is truly a miracle. All that is absolutely true, but it is only one-sided. Lately, there has been more research in this field, especially from probability and decision theory. If you are a student of mathematics, you know what I am referring to. This is a very technical area. Although, I was a math and science teacher, I am not going to get into too much detail here. If you would like to know more, there are several important works that have been published lately that utilize Pascal’s Wager in calling people to believe in God. Pascal was scientist, mathematician, philosopher, inventor, and Catholic theologian who lived in 17th century France. He was brilliant. He was of frail health and died at the age of 39. Here’s my re-statement of the Wager, “We cannot come to the knowledge of God’s existence through reason alone. It’s wise to live as if God does exist because such a life has everything to gain and nothing to lose. If we live as if God exists, and He does indeed exist, we have gained heaven. If He doesn’t exist, we have lost nothing. To the contrary, if we live as though God does not exist and He really does exist, we have gained hell and punishment and have lost heaven. A rational person should live as though the Christian God exists and seek to believe in him.” Bottom line: it is rational to believe in God even with incomplete evidence. Although, some have criticized this wager through the centuries, several scholars (Jeff Jordan, Michael Rota, Thomas Morris, etc.) have attempted this approach, especially a Swedish mathematician, Ola Hössjer, professor at the Stockholm University, Sweden. He takes the Wager model and extends it so that the decision to become a Christian has 3 main ingredients: prior belief (a priori), evidence (a posteriori), and will. He uses Bayes’ Rule or Bayes Theorem to understand the probability of decisions. In other words, “our degree of belief in Christianity is the result of an inborn tendency to relate to God and the evidence we encounter in life.” By the way, Thomas Bayes (18th century statistician, philosopher, and non-conformist Presbyterian minister) who came up with his theorem to counter David Hume (English philosopher and skeptic) who claimed that the probability of people inaccurately claiming that they’d seen Jesus’ resurrection far outweighed the probability that the event had occurred in the first place. Jordana Cepelewicz summarizes Bayes’ simple explanation, “Consider a ball thrown onto a flat table behind your back. You can make a guess as to where it landed, but there’s no way to know for certain how accurate you were, at least not without looking. Then, he says, have a colleague throw another ball onto the table and tell you whether it landed to the right or left of the first ball. If it landed to the right, for example, the first ball is more likely to be on the left side of the table (such an assumption leaves more space to the ball’s right for the second ball to land). With each new ball your colleague throws, you can update your guess to better model the location of the original ball. In a similar fashion, Bayes thought, the various testimonials to Christ’s resurrection suggested the event couldn’t be discounted the way Hume asserted. By the way, according to Cepelewicz, Bayes theorem has been used to decode the German Enigma cipher, helped the United States Navy locate Soviet subs, enabled statisticians to determine the authorship of the Federalist Papers, and even unlock the secrets of the brain.
We don’t have time to look at all this in detail. Let’s just briefly look at the 3 main ingredients: prior belief, evidence, and will.
Prior Belief (a priori = before experience): Inborn conception of God (the desire to call on God and worship someone or something), inborn conception of first cause (the understanding that everything has a beginning/cause), inborn desire for meaning (the desire to do or be something), and inborn desire for love (we all want to love). Each of these can be encouraged or discouraged in a person, especially during the early years. That’s why we place such emphasis on children’s and youth ministries.
Genesis 1:27 “So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.”
Augustine – “You have made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless, until they can find rest in you.”
Evidence (a posterior = after experience): Historical/Cultural (creativity and culture, misconduct of Christians, church history, religion and wars, other religions), Moral/Ethical (moral law, presence of evil), Scientific (design, bible and natural science, cause) Theological/Philosophical (fall of man, judgment and hell, truthfulness of the Bible, theodicy, Israel) and Personal (pain, suffering, miracles, personal testimony). When we hear about people renouncing their faith, one of these evidences is weak or faulty.
The combination of Prior Belief and Evidence leads to Rational Belief. Based on the individual, it depends on which one will be more important than others.
Will: Some need just a little rational belief; some only need some rational belief; and for some, strong rational belief is not enough.
Why was the response of the Paul immediate and heartfelt? He had plenty of prior belief and evidence. For him, the major evidence was not the light and the voice from heaven. It was the tremendous background he has in the scripture. The light and the voice simply stopped him in his tracks and turned him around.
Difference between my dad’s conversion and mine. It matters how you raise children. Current crisis is permanently marking them. How do you talk about church to them or sermons? Do you discipline and guide your kids?
Pascal said, “In faith there is enough light for those who want to believe and enough shadows to blind those who don’t.”
Invitation: What is holding you back? Do you know people who are lost? What do you think is holding them back? Have you prayed for the Holy Spirit would open their eyes and yours?
CONTEND by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson
Introduction: Today, we are starting a brand-new series titled CONTEND. It is coming out of 1 Peter where Peter called on the persecuted church to “always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you.” As our culture is becoming increasingly removed from Christianity, and even becoming hostile to it, it is imperative that we are ready to give a defense of our faith. In fact, it is imperative that we answer the questions that people are asking and give an accurate and adequate defense. With that in mind, we asked you to send some questions that you are struggling with, or you know someone in your life is struggling with. Here are just some of your answers: “Is the Bible truly God’s Word?” “Why does God allow evil in the world?” “Did Jesus really rise from the grave?” “Does God exist?” and many more. Let’s just say that we will be in this series for some time! Also, it will be different from the typical sermons that I preach. Here’s the main point of today’s message: The answer to unjust suffering and persecution is fearlessness and immediate and reasoned defense. Fear will keep you from contending for the faith.
1 Peter 3 13 And who is he who will harm you if you become followers of what is good? 14But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you are blessed. “And do not be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled.”
Context: Last weekend, we learned that Peter gave a paradox for the persecuted church to live by. On one hand, they could rest assured that no harm would come to them since God had his eyes on the wicked. On the other hand, they were to think of themselves as blessed if they had to suffer for their faith. Remember: A Paradox is a statement that appears contradictory on the surface but proves to be true on further examination. The point is that we also have to live the paradoxical life in this new world. On one hand, we should rest assured that no harm would come to us. On the other hand, we should think of ourselves as blessed if we are persecuted for righteousness’ sake. But then, Peter made the following statement at the end of verse 14 – “And do not be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled.” As I pointed out to you last week, that is a quote from Isaiah 8:12 “Nor be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled.” If you’re paying attention in this series, Peter has quoted a lot from Isaiah in his letter – Isaiah 40:6-8 (1 Peter 1:24-25); Isaiah 28:16/8:14 (1 Peter 2:6-8); Isaiah 43:20-21 (1 Peter 2:9); Isaiah 53 (1 Peter 2:22-25); Isaiah 8:12-14 (1 Peter 3:14-16); and Isaiah 11:2 (1 Peter 4:14).
But here’s a problem – the way Peter quoted from Isaiah is not what Isaiah intended in that verse. When Peter said, “And do not be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled,” he was talking about not being afraid of the outsiders. But when Isaiah received that verse, it was talking about not being afraid of the insiders. Isaiah 8 11 For the LORD spoke thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying: 12 “Do not say, ‘A conspiracy,’ Concerning all that this people call a conspiracy, Nor be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled.” Here was the situation: The people of Judah were afraid of the Syro-Ephramite alliance (the confederation of the Northern kingdom of Israel with Syria). They wanted to ask Assyria for their help. God was telling Isaiah not to be scared of what the people around him were afraid of. People have come to this passage and made the claim that the Bible has errors. If Peter was mistaken in his understanding of what Isaiah meant, then how can we claim that the Bible is the inerrant word of God?
There are passages in the NT were the author quoted from the Old Testament, but he either quoted it with the wrong words or with the wrong understanding. What can be done in a situation like that when people claim that the Bible is mistaken?
Scholars have come up with 9 different ways to look at the problem of the use of the OT in the NT (Taken from Moo/Naselli from Carson’s “Enduring Authority”):
- Fideism – The Bible says it I believe it…
- Subjectivity – presuppositions are all there is to it.
- Jewish Exegesis – midrash and pesher, special way of interpretation
- Dual Authorship – divine and human authors are different
- Theological Exegesis – more happening in the context, can become subjective
- Intertextuality – connection of texts on a deeper level
- Typology – God’s plan is repeatedly seen.
- Fuller Meaning – more there than meets the eye by the divine author, easily abused
- Canonical Approach – just focus on the final product
Out of these 9, #3, #5, #6-9 have value. I always begin with #5. In the present situation, #5, #6, #8 are helpful.
Let’s compare the 2 passages and see if Peter was truly mistaken:
|DO NOT FEAR|
|1 Peter 3:14 “…And do not be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled,”||Isaiah 8:12 “…Nor be afraid of their threats, nor be troubled.”|
For e.g. How many of you have ever told your kids “People reap what they sow?” It is from Galatians 6:7 where Paul was talking about sharing with those who teach the word.
The principle is that God’s people have always had to be reminded to be fearless whether the fear was from outside or inside.
Application: Are you allowing fear to rule your heart? Are you allowing someone’s fear to captivate you?
|DEAL WITH ANY AND ALL SIN|
|1 Peter 3:15 “But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts…”||Isaiah 8:13 “The LORD of hosts, Him you shall hallow; Let Him be your fear, And let Him be your dread.”|
The principle is that sin will cause you to fear and hinder your ability to stand in the face of opposition.
There is another principle here – While in Isaiah it was simply Lord of hosts, in Peter it is Lord God, which may be a reference to Christ.
Application: Is there any sin resident in your heart? Is Christ supreme in your life?
|SPEAK OUT AND GIVE HOPE|
|1 Peter 3:15 “and always be ready togive a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear.”||Isaiah 7 3 Then the LORD said to Isaiah, “Go out now to meet Ahaz…4and say to him: “Take heed, and be quiet; do not fear or be fainthearted for these two stubs of smoking firebrands, for the fierce anger of Rezin and Syria, and the son of Remaliah.|
The principle is that we are not just arguing our case. We are bringing hope to people.
Application: Can you see that people need hope?
|REJECTION WILL BRING SHAME|
|1 Peter 3:16 having a good conscience, that when they defame you as evildoers, those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be ashamed.||Isaiah 8:14 He will be as a sanctuary, But a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel, as a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.|
The principle is that rejecting the gospel will bring God’s shame on those people.
Application: Will you be ashamed? Are you saved? Are you contending for the truth?