DIGGING DEEP 8 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 8 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Greeks (1500-165BC)

  • Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture.
  • Koine Greek

Romans

One constant factor during the writing of the New Testament was Rome. Roman history can be divided into three parts:

  1. ROMAN KINGDOM – early stages of Rome. (753 BC – 509 BC) Not very significant for our discussion
  2. ROMAN REPUBLIC – still an early stage of our discussion (509 BC – 44 BC)
  3. ROMAN EMPIRE – (44 BC – 6th century AD)

Rome had great admiration for Ancient Greece. Unlike Persia and Greek, Rome knew how to make people Romans. Persian Empire tried to absorb the conquered people but they still did not create unity. Greece tried but not everybody could be a citizen of Greece. But Rome knew how to truly absorb the surrounding cultures – both people and gods.

Some key aspects of the Roman Empire:

  1. The Emperor
  • In 48 BC Julius Caesar declared himself the Dictator. After he was assassinated, his adopted son, Octavius through a series of battles and events became the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Some of those battles might be familiar to you (Mark Anthony and Cleopatra).
  • In 27 BC the Senate gave him the title of Caesar Augustus and they became just an advisory council to the Emperor. His rule brought the PAX ROMANA. Rome’s first institutionalized police force and fire fighting force. He built roads throughout Italy.
  • The Imperial cult was typically instituted after the death of the emperor. Domitian (AD 81-96) was the first to institute it in his own lifetime. He demanded to be addressed as “dominus et deus” = “Lord and god. This was a major problem to the Christians. (See I Peter 3:12-17; and Revelation 2:13 – “Satan’s throne” in Pergamum)
  1. Provinces
  • Main administrative units; 2 kinds: Senatorial and imperial
  • Senatorial provinces were ruled by governors who were appointed by the Senate. They were no threat to peace. For e.g. Sicily, Spain, Pamphylia, Africa, Macedonia, Asia, Crete, Cyprus, etc.
  • Imperial provinces were also ruled by governors who were appointed by the emperor. They were on the borders of the empire and had a threat of revolt. For e.g. Syria, Gaul, Galatia, and Britain.
  1. Client Kingdoms
  • Not directly administered by Rome but still under Roman rule.
  • They were independent rulers who could appoint their own officials and implement their own policies.
  • Palestine was ruled by Herod from 40BC – 4 BC (Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Peraea, and Idumea)
  • After his death, his territory was divided into 3 parts: Judea, Idumea, and Samaria to Archelaus; North of Galilee to Philip; and Galilee and Peraea to Antipas.
  • Archelaus was removed after 10 years and Idumea and Samaria went under Roman procurators (Pilate, Felix, and Festus).
  • Later Herod Agrippa (Herod’s grandson) was a client king over North of Galilee, Galilee, Perea, and Judea. (Acts 12) His son Herod II (acts 25-26).
  1. Colonies and Free Cities
  • Self governing settlements of Roman Citizens
  • For e.g. Philippi and Corinth (locals who were granted Roman citizenship)
  1. Roman Citizenship
  • People could have dual citizenship like Paul (Tarsus and Rome).
  • It ensured loyalty.
  1. Roman Law
  • Basis of Roman Authority was Legal. It all depended on RIGHT and JURISDICTION. Magistrates had complete power. Measure of all things was the LAW. (Greek – man; East – king; Jewish people – God).
  • It was not perfect – THERE WAS CORRUPTION. The further from Rome, the more the corruption.
  • The power over life and death (ius gladii) was always retained by Governors.
  1. Roman Taxation
  • Poll tax was on every adult, including women and slaves.
  • An amount was set but the local governors could set their amount.
  1. Benefits
  • Pax Romana
  • Roads
  • Common Currency – Greek coins (lepta, drachmai,) and Roman coins (assaria, quadrans, denarius). Also temple currency was in shekels

Test Passages:

  1. Matthew 10:18; 11:8; 17:25; 18:23; 22:2; 25:40

 

  1. John 18:31

 

  1. Acts 16:19-40

 

  1. Galatians 3:28

 

  1. Acts 24:5

DIGGING DEEP 6 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 6 by Abidan Paul Shah 

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

The region in which the biblical events took place is between the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea on the West and the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf in the East and between the Amanus and Ararat Mountains in the North and the Nafud Desert and the southern tip of Sinai in the South. The New Testament expanded the region into what today are Turkey, Greece, Italy, and Spain.

  • Much of the Middle East is desert, as much as 487,000 square miles (not including the Negev, Sinai and Egyptian deserts).
  • The bodies of water, especially the Mediterranean Sea have played a big role in the biblical events.
  • The conflict was over the fertile land by the seacoast. Different peoples came from the Sea (Philistines, Greeks, and Romans) or towards the Sea (Amalekites, Moabites, Edomites, Israelites, and Ammonites). Others came from farther away (Babylonians and Assyrians). Most of the interaction was violent.
  • Some came for timber, building stones, copper, iron, tin, gold, silver, etc. This also led to the development of roads and highways (for e.g. Via Maris and the King’s Highway).
  • Along with rainwater, people have survived through the Nile River in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates in in modern day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, and the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee in Israel. Also, natural springs, wells, and cisterns have been extremely important.
  • The area is often referred to as the Fertile Crescent or sometimes as the Sacred Bridge.
  • Modern Israel is 8,522 sq.mil. = New Jersey. 3-4 hours from the northern tip to the Southern and about 1-2 from east to the west and in parts just 9 miles apart (east-west).

The Land and the Bible:

  1. The Land of Beginnings
  • Mesopotamia “Land between the rivers”
  • Possible location of the Garden of Eden
  • This is where Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldeans.
  • Later under the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Nebuchadnezzar took the Southern Kingdom of Judah into exile.
  • Further to the east is Persia, which overtook the Babylonian empire to become Medo-Persian Empire. This is where Ezekiel, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther were located.
  1. The Promised Land
  • Referred to as Canaan, incorporating the modern states of Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and Jordan.
  • It is divided into 5 major longitudinal zones: the coastal plain, the central mountain range, the Rift Valley, the Transjordanian mountains, and the eastern desert.
  • Much of the Old Testament (Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, the Prophets to the Northern Kingdom of Israel and Southern Kingdom of Judah) and New Testament (Gospels, Acts, James) history took place here.
  1. The Land of Slavery
  • Greek historian Herodotus (5 BC) called it Egypt – “the gift of the Nile.” It is 4,145 miles in length, the longest river in the world. The river was good for farming and transportation. Only 5% of the land is agricultural and the rest is stone, sand, and desert.
  • It’s biblical name is “Mizraim. The land is divided into Upper Egypt (from the head of the Delta up the valley to the South and Lower Egypt (the delta).
  • The final chapters of Genesis and the opening chapters of Exodus took place here. There was other interaction with Egypt throughout Israel’s history.
  1. The Land of the “first called Christians”
  • Phoenicia (remnants of the Canaanites) and Syria (ruled by Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Seleucids)
  • Damascus is an oasis due to the melting snow from the mountains was important since ancient times (Abraham’s servant Eliezer) and New Testament times (Paul’s conversion).
  • Antioch in Syria became a Christian center (Acts 11:25-26)
  1. The Land of the Seven Churches and beyond
  • The region of modern day Turkey known variously as Anatolia, Asia Minor, and Cappadocia.
  • It is surrounded by Black Sea to the North, Aegean Sea to the West, and the Mediterranean Sea to the South.
  • Paul traveled throughout the region – Galatia, Lystra, Antioch in Pisidia and Derbe. John in his book of Revelation wrote to the 7 churches in western region.
  • In his second missionary journey Paul went into Greece (Macedonia)
  • Paul’s ultimate journey took him to Rome.

 

Test Passages:

  1. Genesis 12:1-6

 

  1. Jeremiah 29:11

  

  1. Mark 7:24-29 and Matthew 15:21-28

 

  1. Acts 27:13-20, 42-44; 28:1-2, 16
%d bloggers like this: