Hoi Polloi 16 – Old Testament Biblical Theology

Hoi Polloi LogoIn this episode, Abidan Paul Shah will be discussing the importance of the Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. You will learn how biblical theology keeps the study of the OT from being fragmented by biblical exegesis and even discover the key to the OT.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

DIGGING DEEP 13 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 13 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Tying it all together:

  1. Understand the Incarnational Model of Scripture: Just as Jesus was both divine and human but without sin, so also Scripture is both divine and human and yet without errors.

Hermeneutical Triangle

Literature:

  1. Understand where we are in the History of Biblical Interpretation: Early Jewish Interpretation Sadducees (Literal), Essenes and Qumran Community (Pesher = prophecy), Diaspora (Allegory), and Pharisaic or Rabbinic exegesis, especially Midrash.

 

  1. Understand how the New Testament used the Old Testament: Single Meaning, Unified Referents; Single Meaning, Multiple Contexts and Referents; and Fuller Meaning, Single Goal.

 

  1. Understand the 7 kinds of genre in the Bible: Narrative, Poetry, Wisdom, Prophecy, Parable, Epistle, and Apocalyptic.

 

  1. Understand how language works at a particular stage: Recognize language families for Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek; Break language down into word, sentence, and paragraph.

 

History:

  1. Understand the land of the Bible: between the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea on the West and the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf in the East and between the Amanus and Ararat Mountains in the North and the Nafud Desert and the southern tip of Sinai in the South. The New Testament expanded the region into what today are Turkey, Greece, Italy, and Spain.

 

  1. Understand the political background of the Old Testament: Ancient Mesopotamia (2500-1100BC) – Sumerian & Akkadian Eras and Amorite Dynasties; Ancient Egypt (2500-1100BC); Hebrews (1150-850BC); Assyrians (900-612BC); Neo-Babylonians (625-539BC); Medes and the Persians (850-331BC); Greeks (1500-165BC).

 

  1. Understand the political background of the New Testament: Roman Empire – The Emperor, the Provinces, Client Kingdoms, Colonies and Free Cities, Roman Citizenship, Roman Law, Roman Taxation, Benefits.

 

  1. Understand the religious background of the Bible: Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, and Greco-Roman; Religion can come in many forms – animism (animals, plants, and inanimate objects have spiritual essence), henotheism (worshipping one but acknowledging others), polytheism (many gods), and monotheism (one god).

 

Theology:

  1. Understand the Biblical Theology of the Old Testament: It adds the necessary depth to the study and interpretation of each passage in its context. Based on where a person is studying in the OT, the key/center will help in shedding light on the text in a whole new way. It will open the understanding of the text in its proper larger context of God’s promise-plan (Walter Kaiser)

 

  1. Understand the Biblical Theology of the New Testament: It keeps us from focusing on smaller and smaller parts of the Bible and helps us to get the bigger picture. Again, the key is the promise-plan of God (Walter Kaiser). It also helps to make sense of the Unity and the Diversity of the New Testament and the relationship between the Old and the New Testament.

 

Application:

  1. Understand the Role of the Holy Spirit in Biblical Interpretation: No New Revelation; No Guarantee of Infallible Interpretation; No Deeper Truth; No substitute for diligent and proper study; No Guarantee of resolution of difficult passages; Only the saved can be enabled by the Holy Spirit to truly appreciate and apply the Word; All who are saved have access to the Holy Spirit; Those who truly seek Him find His help.

 

  1. Understand the limits of Application:
  • The Bible does not give specific instructions on all issues for Christians of every age.
  • In our constantly changing world, even if the Bible were to give specific instructions regarding a situation, it will require re-adaptation and re-application of the Bible to the changing world and situation.
  • The stronger the stance is on inerrancy, the greater will be the desire to seek and apply its truths.
  • The closer the interpretation is to the original meaning, the more accurate will be the application.
  • We need to show grace and humility in our application of the Bible.

DIGGING DEEP 12 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 12 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

The role of the Holy Spirit in Biblical Interpretation:

Introductory Questions

  • Does the work of the Holy Spirit in your heart guarantee accurate interpretation?
  • How can two people taught by the Holy Spirit have conflicting views on a passage?
  • Does the Holy Spirit give us deeper meaning that cannot be reached by a normal study of a passage?
  • In what way does the Holy Spirit guide our understanding in the study of God’s Word?

Who is the Holy Spirit? The Holy Spirit is the third person of the Trinity. He is a person (Romans 8:27) and has feelings (Ephesians 4:30) and a will (1 Corinthians 12:11). He is God (John 14:16) and has the same attributes as the other members of the Trinity (Psalm 139:7; Job 33:4). He was involved in the Creation of the World (Genesis 1:2), the giving of the OT & NT (1 Peter 1:10-12; 2 Peter 1:21), and the life of Jesus (Luke 1:35; 4:1). Jesus promised His disciples that the Holy Spirit would help them remember Him when He was ascended (John 16:13-14). Now the Holy Spirit works daily in the life of the believers (Romans 8:9) and in this world (John 16:8).

Several principles about the role of the Holy Spirit in Biblical Interpretation:

5 Negatives:

  1. No New Revelation (John 6:63; I Thessalonians 1:5; 2 Timothy 3:16; I Peter 1:22-25)

 

  1. No Guarantee of Infallible Interpretation

  

  1. No Deeper Truth

 

  1. No substitute for diligent and proper study (2 Timothy 2:14-16)

 

  1. No Guarantee of resolution of difficult passages (2 Peter 3:16; I Corinthians 13:12)

 

3 Positives:

  1. Only the saved can be enabled by the Holy Spirit to truly appreciate and apply the Word (I Corinthians 2:14; I Thessalonians 1:6)

 

  1. All who are saved have access to the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:5-8; 1 John 2:20, 27)

 

  1. Those who truly seek Him find His help (I Corinthians 2:14-3:4)

Hoi Polloi Podcast 11 – Biblical Words

In this episode, Abidan Paul Shah focuses on biblical words and their meanings. Often people do poor word studies and misinterpret passages. This episode will teach you to study words in their proper contexts.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

DIGGING DEEP – 5 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 5 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Some preliminary remarks about language(s):

  • It is possible to communicate God’s Word in human words without any errors.
  • Avoid claims that one language is intellectually superior to another.
  • The main purpose is to understand how the language works at a particular stage and not how it has evolved. For e.g. Grammar and glamour are related.

Recognize language families:

  • Semitic (Hebrew and Aramaic)

Our focus is Northwest Semitic, which is divided into Canaanite and Aramaic

Abraham probably spoke an ancient form of Aramaic, coming from the Aramean region, Upper Mesopotamia (Deut. 26:5)

They must have adopted a form of Canaanite that later became Hebrew.

Hebrew probably had its glory days under David and Solomon but did not spread beyond the borders of Israel.

Aramaic became an international language under the Assyrians.

Later the people of the Southern Kingdom (Judah) were taken into exile to Babylon where they adopted Aramaic.

When they returned, they kept both Hebrew and Aramaic but the later became more prominent.

98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, presence of Aramaic in the Jerusalem Talmud and targums.

Hebrew can be divided into various periods: Early Biblical Hebrew (oldest poetic composition), Classical Biblical Hebrew (pre-exilic to post-exilic), Late Biblical Hebrew (Persian Period).

Hebrew almost became a dead language after the destruction of the temple and hence the Masoretes had to insert vowels into the text.

  • Indo-European (Greek)

Mycenean Greek goes back to the 13th century BC.

It was fragmented – Ionic (Western coast of Asia Minor), Attica (Athens), Aeolic (Thessaly), Doric (Corinth)

Athens became the cultural center and hence Attic played a big role in Greek literature.

Because of Alexander the Great (356-323BC), it became the lingua franca.

It went through some radical changes and became koine, the language in which the New Testament was written.

Koine is not “Holy Spirit” Greek, just common Greek of the time.

 

For our purpose of studying the Bible in depth, language can be broken down in 3 parts: 

  1. Word – is the building block of language. But, without a context, words are almost meaningless. For e.g. “Set that on the counter” and “Counter that argument.” One of the most common mistakes in word studies is “Root Fallacy” – meaning is determined by etymology (origin of the word). For e.g. “Good-bye” comes from the Anglo-Saxon “God Be With You.” But, the word “nice” comes from the Latin necius, which means “ignorant.” Other examples: bureau, express, beef, and pork.

Common Greek Misuse: “agapao” vs phileo. Agapao = divine love and phileo = brotherly love. But it is not so clear-cut. There are many overlaps. In Sam 13:15, agapao (LXX) is used for Amnon’s rape of his sister. II Tim 4:10 – Demas left Paul because he loved this present, evil world. Again, John 3:35 – Love =agapao but John 5:20 – Love = phileo.

Along with the syntax, we need literary and historical context. Also, the speech patterns of biblical Hebrew and Greek culture must determine the principles for word study. This does not mean that every root word study is useless.

  1. Sentence – It’s not enough to look at what the Bible contains but what it communicates. Sentence is a complete thought. Some cautions here as well regarding excessive use of grammatical categories. For e.g. Aorist in Romans 6:10
  1. Paragraph – Sometimes the Bible indicates where it starts and ends but many times it doesn’t. The context is key. There are many complicated tools to recognize shifts in paragraphs but just being sensitive to the context can help a lot.

 

Test Passages:

  1. Difference in meaning of the words “faith,” “works,” and “justify” as seen in Romans 4:1-5 and James 2:14-26.

 

  1. What is the place of “faith” in Mark 11:22 vs. Galatians 2:16, Acts 3:16, Colossians 2:12?

 

  1. How specific is a usage? Philippians 1:27 and Galatians 1:12

 

  1. Is this too much grammar? Matthew 7:7

 

  1. What is the flow of Romans 1:16-18?

Hoi Polloi Podcast 10 – How I prepare my sermons

In this episode, Abidan Shah focuses on his method of sermon preparation. These are questions that people have been asking for a long time. Here are his answers.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

DIGGING DEEP – 4 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 4 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Some preliminary remarks:

  • Again, remember the tool imagery from last week. We are trying to put together the most well rounded system of interpretation (comprehensive, congruent, consistent, and coherent) – from David L. Wolfe, Epistemology, The Justification of Belief.
  • Find a balance between “commitment to literal” and “appreciation of genre”

Today we will be looking at what’s known as Genre or Type of Literature found in the Bible. My information is coming from Grant Osborne’s Hermeneutical Spiral.

  1. Narrative – Found in OT books like Genesis, Exodus, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Nehemiah, etc.; NT books like Gospels, Acts, etc. They contain both history and theology. The basic method to study them is to “Read them” and look for the various dimensions of the story – plot, characters, and setting. Also look for the various dimensions of the discourse – implied author, point of view, and implicit commentary, implied reader.
  1. Poetry – Found in some OT historical books (Gen 49; Ex 15:1-18, I Sam 2;1-10), some entire prophetic books (Hosea, Joel, Amos), some extensive portions of other prophetic books (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Jonah), and especially in Psalms, Proverbs, Lamentations, Song of songs, or Job. Types of Poetry – War Songs, Love Songs, Lament, Hymns or Praise Songs, Thanksgiving Hymns, Songs of Celebration and Affirmation, Wisdom and Didactic Psalms, and Imprecatory Psalms. In the NT, there are many quotations of psalms; quotations from ancient poets (Acts 17:28); poetic passages in the form of Hebraic hymns (Luke 1-2); passages without meter but containing exalted expressions of poetry (Mt 5:3-12 or John 1)
  1. Wisdom – Found in OT books – Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes. Various forms of Wisdom Literature – Proverb, Saying, Riddle, Admonition, Allegory, Hymns and Prayers, Dialogue, Confession, Beatitudes. Found in the NT books – Sermon on the Mount (Mt 5), Romans, 12, James 1-3,
  1. Prophecy – predominant in the latter part of the OT and in the NT. The writing prophets were active in only three centuries (from the 8th – 5th). The prophet was a “forth-teller” before he was a “foreteller.” They were not angry with the Jewish system but with the apostasy and false religion that was practiced in both Israel and Judah. They stood for the Torah and condemned Israel’s worship because it was impure. The key to understanding prophecy is to determine the original context.
  1. Parable – One third of Jesus’ teaching in the synoptic gospels comes in parables. The Hebrew term is “masal” which is also the word for proverb and riddle. It has the basic idea of comparison. Again, carefully read the original setting.
  1. Epistle – most of the NT. To correctly understand the epistle – study the logical development of the argument. It is a letter.
  1. Apocalyptic – In the OT – Daniel, Zechariah, visions of Ezekiel (37-39), Isaiah 24-27, locust plague of Joel; in the NT – Olivet Discourse (Mk 13 and parallels), I Cor 15, II Thess 2, II Peter 3, Jude and Revelation. It covers the period from the seventh century BC to first century AD. The term “apocalypse” means to reveal or uncover. Again, begin by looking at the original context and then seek to understand the present application with humility. The reason for cryptic symbols is to keep the reader from being to confident in applying the passage to his/her present setting.

 

Test Passages:

  1. John 3

 

  1. Gen 24

 

  1. Psalm 91:1-4

 

  1. Malachi 3:1-3

 

  1. Ecclesiastes 2:9-17

 

  1. Matthew 5:20 vs. Galatians 2:21

 

  1. Luke 15

 

  1. Revelation 9:1-3 in light of Joel 2

 

  1. Revelation 13:5 along with Daniel 12:11

DIGGING DEEP – 3 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 3 by Abidan Paul Shah

Click here to view this session in its entirety.

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Last Week – Earliest period of biblical interpretation – Early Jewish Interpretation (Hoi Polloi Podcast #8)

  • Pharisees (Midrash),
  • Sadducees (Literal),
  • Essenes and Qumran Community (Pesher = prophecy),
  • Diaspora (Allegory)

Now we come to the 2nd period of biblical interpretation – Jesus and the Apostles

  • How they used the OT really matters? It’s not just about how they quoted or alluded to the OT. It’s about where does Christ fit in the grand scheme of God’s revelation, the Bible. It’s the mindset of the Jesus and the NT writers.
  • It’s also about how we can now study the Bible, the OT and the NT. 

There are basically 3 schools of thoughts here:

  1. Single Meaning, Unified Referents
  • What the OT writer intends by his words is what the NT author intends.

John 13:18   “I do not speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He who eats bread with Me has lifted up his heel against Me.’

Psalm 41:9 Even my own familiar friend in whom I trusted, Who ate my bread, Has lifted up his heel against me.

Passages that help – II Samuel 7:12-25; Psalm 132:12

  1. Single Meaning, Multiple Contexts and Referents
  • The words of the OT writer frequently take on new dimensions of significance and are applied to new referents and new situations as God’s purposes unfold in the larger canonical context.

Acts 4 24 So when they heard that, they raised their voice to God with one accord and said: “Lord, You are God, who made heaven and earth and the sea, and all that is in them, 25 who by the mouth of Your servant David have said: “Why did the nations rage, And the people plot vain things? 26 The kings of the earth took their stand, And the rulers were gathered together Against the LORD and against His Christ.’

Psalm 2 1  Why do the nations rage, And the people plot a vain thing? 2 The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD and against His Anointed,

  1. Fuller Meaning, Single Goal
  • NT writers often perceive new meanings in OT texts that are not necessarily closely related to the meanings intended by the original authors. This is based on the conviction that the Scriptures point to and are fulfilled in Christ.

Matt. 2:14   When he arose, he took the young Child and His mother by night and departed for Egypt, 15 and was there until the death of Herod, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, “Out of Egypt I called My Son.”

Hosea 11:1 “When Israel was a child, I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son.

Test Passages:

Matt. 2:16   Then Herod, when he saw that he was deceived by the wise men, was exceedingly angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all its districts, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had determined from the wise men. 17 Then was fulfilled what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying: 18 “A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation, weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, Refusing to be comforted, Because they are no more.”

Jer. 31:15   Thus says the LORD: “A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children, Refusing to be comforted for her children, Because they are no more.”

 

Romans 10 6 But the righteousness of faith speaks in this way, “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ down from above) 7 or, “ ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). 8 But what does it say? “The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart” (that is, the word of faith which we preach): 9 that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.

Deut. 30:11   “For this commandment which I command you today is not too mysterious for you, nor is it far off. 12 It is not in heaven, that you should say, “Who will ascend into heaven for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ 13 Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, “Who will go over the sea for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ 14 But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it.

 

The Analogy of the house with foundation and roof

Final Comments: Yes – we do see Jesus using the exegetical methods of his contemporaries to answer them (we saw this last week) but that does not mean that He endorsed their methods. If anything, we only see the pesher type method being used repeatedly. As to the apostles, there is no one system of Jewish exegesis that they adhere to. We do need to deal with the advancement in hermeneutical understanding of rabbinic exegesis (Midrash). But, we should deal as sincerely and intricately as possible with the original context first. We need to be slow in using scripture to interpret scripture (Analogy of Faith). We should keep Israel and church distinct. God has many promises and prophecies still to be fulfilled for them. Nonetheless, Christ is the only way to salvation and He is the fulfillment and the end of Scripture

 

Hoi Polloi Episode 9 – History of Biblical Interpretation 2

In this episode, Pastor Abidan Shah focuses on first century techniques for interpreting Scripture. He addresses the three schools of thought related to biblical interpretation and how these are utilized today.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

Hoi Polloi Episode 8 – History of Biblical Interpretation 1

In this episode of Hoi Polloi, Pastor Shah tackles the history of biblical interpretation. In this first part, he focuses on early Jewish interpretation and how it was influenced by various traditions and schools of thought.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

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