DIGGING DEEP 4 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 4 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah 

Recap from last week:

  • Know the difference between Form and Meaning (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions). “Form” includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc and “meaning” includes concepts or thoughts from the forms
  • “For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Criteria for Adjustment in Bible Translation (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  1. Required by the grammar of the target language
  • In Hebrew the standard word order is Verb-Subject-Object-Modifier.

וַתָּ֣קָם חַנָּ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֛י אָכְלָ֥ה בְשִׁלֹ֖ה וְאַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁתֹ֑ה

(Arose – Hannah – after – eating – in Shiloh – and after – drinking – I Samuel 1:9)

  • In English the standard word order is Subject-Verb-Object-Modifier.

“So Hannah arose after they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh.”

  • Matthew 1:6 Ἰεσσαὶ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Δαυὶδ τὸν βασιλέα. Δαυὶδ δὲ ⸆ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου,

Actual Translation – “and Jesse begot the David the king. David the king begot the Solomon by the of the Uriah.”

“Wife” has to be added and “the” has to be omitted twice.

  1. Required to ensure correct meaning
  • Romans 6   1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ⸀ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; 2 μὴ γένοιτο….
  • Actual translation – Romans 6   1 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? 2 May it not become… (Let it not become)
  • Check KJV, NKJV, NIV
  1. Required to ensure clarity
  • The translators added, “who had been” in Matthew 1:6 to make sure that Bathsheba was not married to Uriah at the time Solomon was born.
  • Check NASB, KJV, NKJV, NIV
  • Ephesians 1:13
  1. Required to ensure naturalness
  • “Bathsheba” added by NASB
  • “And” omitted by NASB
  • “Begat” should be replaced with much better contemporary word… (“Fathered” implies that David didn’t really have a relationship with Solomon)

DIGGING DEEP 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • 2 Major views of Translation: Formal Equivalent (literal/word-for-word); Functional Equivalent (idiomatic/meaning-based/dynamic)
  • Range of translation: Highly Literal, Modified Literal, Idiomatic, and Unduly Free
  • No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Difference between FORM and MEANING (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  • FORM includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc.
  • MEANING includes concepts or thoughts from the forms

“For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)

How to translate words?

  • “Words” are important. They are the building block of any language, the starting point of form.
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages. Meaning should be viewed as an area and not a precise point.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Case in point: Logos (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions)

  1. Logos has more meanings than just “word”

John 1:1 (NKJV) “In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and the logos was God.”

Acts 1:1 (NKJV) “The former logos I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach.”

Romans 14:12 (NKJV) “So then each of us shall give logos of himself to God.”

1 Corinthians 1:18 (NKJV) “For the logos of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:1 (NKJV) “And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of logos or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:4 (NKJV) “And my logos and my preaching were not with persuasive logos of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.”

Ephesians 4:29 (NKJV) “Let no corrupt logos proceed out of your mouth…”

1 Timothy 1:15 (NKJV) “This is a faithful logos and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.”

1 Peter 3:15 (NKJV) “…always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a logos for the hope that is in you…”

Acts 20:24 (NKJV) “But of no logos; nor do I count my life dear to myself…”

Matthew 5:32 (NKJV) “But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for the logos of sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery…”

  1. Logos is more than just a “single” word

Galatians 5:14 (NKJV) For all the law is fulfilled in one logos, even in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Check the interesting rendering here by NASB)

John 19:7-8 (NKJV) The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God.” Therefore, when Pilate heard that logos, he was the more afraid.”

  1. Guidelines for best translation of logos:
  • Literal translations use “word” most of the time for logos since it is the one that corresponds the most.
  • Idiomatic translations use the meaning that fits the context the most.

How about Revelation 22   18   For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; 19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

– Check Matthew 25:19; I Corinthians 15:2; Philippians 4:15; and Hebrews 4:13 (Logos is missing in the KJV translation because the translators were going for meaning rather than form.)

DIGGING DEEP 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • Translations are still the Word of God. They’re also inspired and inerrant to the extent that they represent the original text.
  • Understand the difference between Wahy and Ilham (direct revelation vs. inspiration of the Holy Spirit)
  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation or word-for-word translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?) I lean more towards the literal side of things.

How Translation Works:

 

2 Major Views of Translation:

  1. Formal Equivalent: It is also known as “literal” or “word-for-word” translation. It tries to preserve the form in the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek writing. This is with regards to both word and grammar.
  2. Functional Equivalent: It is also known as “idiomatic” or “meaning-based” translation. Some have even called it dynamic. It tries to focus on the meaning, naturalness, and clarity.

The matter is more complicated than that. The following is a better Range of Translation, as taken from John Beekman and John Callow’s book, Translating the Word of God.)

 

A.  Highly Literal – The focus is on both words and word orders. For e.g. Interlinears.

Joshua 1:9 “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”

Actual – Joshua 1:9 (BHS) הֲלֹ֤וא צִוִּיתִ֨יךָ֙ חֲזַ֣ק וֶאֱמָ֔ץ אַֽל־תַּעֲרֹ֖ץ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּ֤י עִמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃ פ

Literal Translation – ?·not I-instructed·you be-steadfast-you ! and·be-resolute-you ! must-not-be you-are-being-terrified and·must-not-be you-are-being-dismayed that with·you Yahweh· Elohim-of·you in·all which you-are-going

John 1:12 “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name.”

Actual – ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,

Literal Translation – as many as   but received him   he gives   to them   right   children   of God   to be becoming   to the   ones believing   into the   name of   him.

B.  Modified Literal Translation – It focuses on words and is willing to modify the word order to make sense. For e.g. NKJV, NASB, ESV

C.  Idiomatic Translation – It focuses much more on sounding natural and clear. For e.g. NLT, God’s Word, etc.

Joshua 1:9 “This is my command—be strong and courageous! Do not be afraid or discouraged. For the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.”

John 1:12 “But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.”

D.  Unduly Free – It changes the wording and word order, historical setting, and original context to suit the present audience. For e.g. Cotton Patch Version

Important point to remember: No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Example: Job 19:27

Hebrew – “which I I-shall-perceive for·me and·eyes-of·me they-see and·not alien-one they-are-exhausted kidneys-of·me in·bosom-of·me.”

NKJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, And my eyes shall behold, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!”

ESV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!

NIV – “I will see Him myself; my eyes will look at Him, and not as a stranger. My heart longs within me.

NLT – “I will see him for myself. Yes, I will see him with my own eyes. I am overwhelmed at the thought!

MESSAGE – “see God myself, with my very own eyes. Oh, how I long for that day!

KJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

DIGGING DEEP 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Total number of all the Bible translations in the world: Not Sure.

Old Testament: Samaritan Pentateuch, Aramaic Targums, and the Septuagint.

New Testament: Syriac, Coptic, Latin, Ethiopic, Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Slavonic, English, etc.

Total number of English Bible translations: According to one estimation, there are 900 and another as many as 1400. This includes translations as well as paraphrases, revisions, and partial translations.

Original Languages of the Bible: 98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, etc. But, the New Testament was written in Koine Greek.

Translations are still the Word of God – translations are also inspired and inerrant to the extent they represent the original text. We believe that the original words are not isolated entities. They come together to make propositions. Hence, as long as the translations are true to the original text, they are just as much the Word of God as the original text.

Difference between the translations of the Quran and the translations of the Bible: In Islam, only the Arabic Quran is considered to be authoritative. This is the language in which it was given and the translations involve interpretation, which can be distorted. School kids are told to memorize the Quran in Arabic even in countries where Arabic is not the main language. Recitation of the Quran has to be in Arabic. Why is this? In Muslim theology there are 2 key words that are important to understand: wahy and ilham. Wahy is the pure revelation of God. It exists in heaven and everything else, including translations, is just interpretation or rendition. Ilham is God revealing his knowledge into the mind of the person. This is similar to the Biblical doctrine of inspiration. Under wahy, there is no such thing as the “original message” or “context” or the “true words” of the prophet Mohammed; the Quran is the word of God.

A good example to explain the difference between the Quran translations and the Bible translations: From Rodney Decker, “Verbal-Plenary Inspiration and Translation” – The International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sévres, Paris, has the official International Prototype Kilogram. It is the standard against which all kilogram measures are established. But, my weight measures are still accurate.

2 Timothy 3   16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

Major points to remember:

  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation.
  • There is no such thing as a word-for-word translation.
  • There is no such thing as consistent formal equivalent translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Dave Brunn) In other words, “modified” acknowledges that the translators have to modify in order to reflect the best meaning. Literal is the goal of the translation.
  • Translations carry the same authority as the original text, to the extent that they reflect the original text.
  • Translations have to be constantly updated.

Couple of examples:

(Taken from Dave Brunn’s book – “One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?”)

Jeremiah 48:4  בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוֹן׃  = sons of roar, crash, noise

 NKJV – “Those who fled stood under the shadow of Heshbon because of exhaustion. But a fire shall come out of Heshbon, a flame from the midst of Sihon, and shall devour the brow of Moab, the crown of the head of the sons of tumult.”

HCSB – “Those who flee will stand exhausted in Heshbon’s shadow because fire has come out from Heshbon and a flame from within Sihon. It will devour Moab’s forehead and the skull of the noisemakers.

NIV – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand helpless, for a fire has gone out from Heshbon, a blaze from the midst of Sihon; it burns the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of the noisy boasters.”

NASB – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand without strength; For a fire has gone forth from Heshbon and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and it has devoured the forehead of Moab and the scalps of the riotous revelers.”

 

Romans 3:20 σὰρξ = Flesh, physical body; human nature, earthly descent, human being, person, man, earthly life, etc. 

NKJV – Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

ESV For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since zthrough the law comes knowledge of sin.

HCSB For no one will be justified in His sight by the works of the law, because the knowledge of sin comes through the law.

NLT For no one can ever be made right with God by doing what the law commands. The law simply shows us how sinful we are.

MessageOur involvement with God’s revelation doesn’t put us right with God. What it does is force us to face our complicity in everyone else’s sin.

NETFor no one is declared righteous before him23 by the works of the law,24 for through the law comes25 the knowledge of sin.

NIV Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.

NASBbecause by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

DAILY DEVOTIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEK – 1 John 1:3 by Abidan Paul Shah

Daily Devotions from the Original Greek – 1 John 1:3 by Abidan Paul Shah

Papyrus 9, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 - recto

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 – recto

Through the years many people have approached me with the desire to study the Bible in the original languages. Not that they don’t trust the Bible in their English translations, they just have a hunger for more. The pattern is quite familiar – They ask me for resources. I provide them with the best tools. They wade into the murky waters of Grammar, Syntax, and Critical Issues of the biblical text. Some go farther than others but inevitably they all turn to familiar shores, never to venture again. It is truly unfortunate… Hence, these “Daily Devotions from the Original Greek.” They are in no way exhaustive exegetical commentaries. They’re simply my personal devotions based on the original languages. Hopefully, they will inspire some to cast anchor and sail into uncharted waters. My prayer is that you won’t despair when the winds howl or the waves threaten to overturn the boat. οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. (Matt. 8:27)

Text:

1 John 1:3 – Ὃ ἑωράκαμεν καὶ ἀκηκόαμεν, ἀπαγγέλλομεν ὑμῖν, ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς κοινωνίαν ἔχητε μεθ᾽ ἡμῶν· καὶ ἡ κοινωνία δὲ ἡ ἡμετέρα μετὰ τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ·

(For the meaning and parsing of each Greek word in the verse please see below under parsing.

My Translation:

1 John 1:3 What we have seen and heard, we announce to you, in order that even you may have fellowship with us and our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son, Jesus Christ.

Some Devotional Thoughts:

John tells his readers that he is not content with having been with Jesus and seen His glory. He invites them to have fellowship with himself and those who have been with Jesus. In essence they will be having fellowship with God the Father and Jesus the Son. Unfortunately, Christianity today is very selfish. We have a personal relationship with God. We feel His presence in us. To the contrary, true fellowship with Jesus invites others to participate in the same joy and truth. Are you inviting others to join in your fellowship with Jesus? In fact, when unbelievers come in contact with us, it will create a desire in them to want their own personal relationship with Jesus.

Here’s something else – Christ is not just the Messiah of the Jewish people. He is also the Son of God. He is God in flesh. That is the heart of Christianity! Is Christ God to you?

Parsing[1]:

Ὃ = What (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἑωράκαμεν = we have seen (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ὁράω)

καὶ – and (conjunction from καί)

ἀκηκόαμεν, = we have heard (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ἀκούω)

ἀπαγγέλλομεν = we announce (verb indicative present active 1st person plural from ἀπαγγέλλω)

ὑμῖν, = to you (pronoun personal dative plural from σύ)

ἵνα = in order that (conjunction from ἵνα)

καὶ = even (adverb from καί)

ὑμεῖς = you (pronoun personal nominative plural from σύ)

κοινωνίαν = fellowship (noun accusative feminine singular from κοινωνία)

ἔχητε = may have (verb subjunctive present active 2nd person plural from ἔχω)

μεθ᾽ = with (preposition from μετά)

ἡμῶν = us (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

καὶ = and (conjunction from καί)

ἡ = the (definite article nominative feminine singular from ὁ)

κοινωνία = fellowship (noun nominative feminine singular from κοινωνία)

δὲ = and/but (conjunction from δέ)

ἡ = the (definite article nominative feminine singular from ὁ)

ἡμετέρα = us (pronoun possessive nominative feminine singular from ἡμέτερος)

μετὰ = with (preposition from μετά)

τοῦ = of the (definite article genitive masculine singular from ὁ)

πατρὸς = of father (noun genitive masculine singular from πατήρ)

καὶ = and (conjunction from καί)

μετὰ = with (preposition from μετά)

τοῦ = of the (definite article genitive masculine singular from ὁ)

υἱοῦ = of son (noun genitive masculine singular from υἱός)

αὐτοῦ = his (pronoun personal genitive masculine singular from αὐτός)

Ἰησοῦ = Jesus (noun genitive masculine singular from Ἰησοῦς)

Χριστοῦ. = Christ (noun genitive masculine singular from Χριστός)

[1] The parsing is taken from Bible Works 10

DAILY DEVOTIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEK – 1 John 1:1 by Abidan Paul Shah

Daily Devotions from the Original Greek – 1 John 1:1 by Abidan Paul Shah

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 - recto

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 – recto

 Through the years many people have approached me with the desire to study the Bible in the original languages. Not that they don’t trust the Bible in their English translations, they just have a hunger for more. The pattern is quite familiar – They ask me for resources. I provide them with the best tools. They wade into the murky waters of Grammar, Syntax, and Critical Issues of the biblical text. Some go farther than others but inevitably they all turn to familiar shores, never to venture again. It is truly unfortunate… Hence, these “Daily Devotions from the Original Greek.” They are in no way exhaustive exegetical commentaries. They’re simply my personal devotions based on the original languages. Hopefully, they will inspire some to cast anchor and sail into uncharted waters. My prayer is that you won’t despair when the winds howl or the waves threaten to overturn the boat. οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. (Matt. 8:27)

Text:

1 John 1:1 – Ὃ ἦν ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς, ὃ ἀκηκόαμεν, ὃ ἑωράκαμεν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν, ὃ ἐθεασάμεθα καὶ αἱ χεῖρες ἡμῶν ἐψηλάφησαν περὶ τοῦ λόγου τῆς ζωῆς-

Parsing[1]:

Ὃ = What (pronoun relative nominative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἦν = was (verb indicative imperfect active 3rd person singular from εἰμί)

ἀπ᾽ = from (preposition genitive from ἀπό)

ἀρχῆς, = the beginning (noun genitive feminine singular common from ἀρχή)

ὃ = whom (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἀκηκόαμεν, = we have heard (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ἀκούω)

ὃ = whom (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἑωράκαμεν = we have seen (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ὁράω)

τοῖς definite article dative masculine plural from ὁ)

ὀφθαλμοῖς = eyes (noun dative masculine plural common from ὀφθαλμός)

ἡμῶν, = our (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

ὃ = whom (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἐθεασάμεθα = we have witnessed (verb indicative aorist middle 1st person plural from θεάομαι)

καὶ = and (conjunction coordinating from καί)

αἱ definite article nominative feminine plural from ὁ)

χεῖρες = hands (noun nominative feminine plural common from χείρ)

ἡμῶν = our (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

ἐψηλάφησαν = have touched (verb indicative aorist active 3rd person plural from ψηλαφάω)

περὶ = with regard to (preposition genitive from περί)

τοῦ = the (definite article genitive masculine singular from ὁ)

λόγου = Word (noun genitive masculine singular common from λόγος)

τῆς definite article genitive feminine singular from ὁ)

ζωῆς = of Life (noun genitive feminine singular common from ζωή)

My Translation:

1 John 1:1 – What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have witnessed and our hands have touched, with regard to the Word of Life.

Some Devotional Thoughts:

John begins his letter by spotlighting Jesus Christ. What an awesome way to begin a letter! What if we began every conversation with Christ? Won’t that keep our communication on the right path? Won’t that resolve most of our miscommunications in life? This does not mean that we have to verbally say His name or deliberately interject His name before we say anything else. What it does mean is that we need to have Christ at the forefront of our minds and hearts before we interact with any person – friend or foe. This will help guide our conversation in a God directed, empowered, and pleasing way.

What is also interesting to me is that John brings out the divine and human elements of the person of Christ. First, Christ is no mere man. He was from the beginning, which means He always was. In other words, He is God. Second, Christ is no mere distant deity. He came into this world. Men, women, boys, and girls had the opportunity to hear Him, see Him, witness His power and glory, and touch Him. Christ is God come beside us – touchable, vulnerable, and examinable.

Finally, the title that John attributes to Jesus is so majestic and yet simple – Word of Life. We know both the words “word” and “life.” Word = we use them all day long. They are uncountable. They may be petty or profound. Life = we exist and we experience. It is physical existence and yet more – emotional and mental subsistence. To say “Christ is the Word of Life” means Christ is the author, sustainer, meaning, and goal of life. Wow! Is Christ that central to your physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual existence? Why not ask Him to be?

[1] The parsing is taken from Bible Works 10

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