DIGGING DEEP 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • 2 Major views of Translation: Formal Equivalent (literal/word-for-word); Functional Equivalent (idiomatic/meaning-based/dynamic)
  • Range of translation: Highly Literal, Modified Literal, Idiomatic, and Unduly Free
  • No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Difference between FORM and MEANING (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  • FORM includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc.
  • MEANING includes concepts or thoughts from the forms

“For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)

How to translate words?

  • “Words” are important. They are the building block of any language, the starting point of form.
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages. Meaning should be viewed as an area and not a precise point.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Case in point: Logos (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions)

  1. Logos has more meanings than just “word”

John 1:1 (NKJV) “In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and the logos was God.”

Acts 1:1 (NKJV) “The former logos I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach.”

Romans 14:12 (NKJV) “So then each of us shall give logos of himself to God.”

1 Corinthians 1:18 (NKJV) “For the logos of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:1 (NKJV) “And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of logos or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:4 (NKJV) “And my logos and my preaching were not with persuasive logos of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.”

Ephesians 4:29 (NKJV) “Let no corrupt logos proceed out of your mouth…”

1 Timothy 1:15 (NKJV) “This is a faithful logos and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.”

1 Peter 3:15 (NKJV) “…always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a logos for the hope that is in you…”

Acts 20:24 (NKJV) “But of no logos; nor do I count my life dear to myself…”

Matthew 5:32 (NKJV) “But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for the logos of sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery…”

  1. Logos is more than just a “single” word

Galatians 5:14 (NKJV) For all the law is fulfilled in one logos, even in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Check the interesting rendering here by NASB)

John 19:7-8 (NKJV) The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God.” Therefore, when Pilate heard that logos, he was the more afraid.”

  1. Guidelines for best translation of logos:
  • Literal translations use “word” most of the time for logos since it is the one that corresponds the most.
  • Idiomatic translations use the meaning that fits the context the most.

How about Revelation 22   18   For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; 19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

– Check Matthew 25:19; I Corinthians 15:2; Philippians 4:15; and Hebrews 4:13 (Logos is missing in the KJV translation because the translators were going for meaning rather than form.)

DIGGING DEEP 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • Translations are still the Word of God. They’re also inspired and inerrant to the extent that they represent the original text.
  • Understand the difference between Wahy and Ilham (direct revelation vs. inspiration of the Holy Spirit)
  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation or word-for-word translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?) I lean more towards the literal side of things.

How Translation Works:

 

2 Major Views of Translation:

  1. Formal Equivalent: It is also known as “literal” or “word-for-word” translation. It tries to preserve the form in the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek writing. This is with regards to both word and grammar.
  2. Functional Equivalent: It is also known as “idiomatic” or “meaning-based” translation. Some have even called it dynamic. It tries to focus on the meaning, naturalness, and clarity.

The matter is more complicated than that. The following is a better Range of Translation, as taken from John Beekman and John Callow’s book, Translating the Word of God.)

 

A.  Highly Literal – The focus is on both words and word orders. For e.g. Interlinears.

Joshua 1:9 “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”

Actual – Joshua 1:9 (BHS) הֲלֹ֤וא צִוִּיתִ֨יךָ֙ חֲזַ֣ק וֶאֱמָ֔ץ אַֽל־תַּעֲרֹ֖ץ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּ֤י עִמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃ פ

Literal Translation – ?·not I-instructed·you be-steadfast-you ! and·be-resolute-you ! must-not-be you-are-being-terrified and·must-not-be you-are-being-dismayed that with·you Yahweh· Elohim-of·you in·all which you-are-going

John 1:12 “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name.”

Actual – ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,

Literal Translation – as many as   but received him   he gives   to them   right   children   of God   to be becoming   to the   ones believing   into the   name of   him.

B.  Modified Literal Translation – It focuses on words and is willing to modify the word order to make sense. For e.g. NKJV, NASB, ESV

C.  Idiomatic Translation – It focuses much more on sounding natural and clear. For e.g. NLT, God’s Word, etc.

Joshua 1:9 “This is my command—be strong and courageous! Do not be afraid or discouraged. For the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.”

John 1:12 “But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.”

D.  Unduly Free – It changes the wording and word order, historical setting, and original context to suit the present audience. For e.g. Cotton Patch Version

Important point to remember: No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Example: Job 19:27

Hebrew – “which I I-shall-perceive for·me and·eyes-of·me they-see and·not alien-one they-are-exhausted kidneys-of·me in·bosom-of·me.”

NKJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, And my eyes shall behold, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!”

ESV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!

NIV – “I will see Him myself; my eyes will look at Him, and not as a stranger. My heart longs within me.

NLT – “I will see him for myself. Yes, I will see him with my own eyes. I am overwhelmed at the thought!

MESSAGE – “see God myself, with my very own eyes. Oh, how I long for that day!

KJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

DIGGING DEEP 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Total number of all the Bible translations in the world: Not Sure.

Old Testament: Samaritan Pentateuch, Aramaic Targums, and the Septuagint.

New Testament: Syriac, Coptic, Latin, Ethiopic, Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Slavonic, English, etc.

Total number of English Bible translations: According to one estimation, there are 900 and another as many as 1400. This includes translations as well as paraphrases, revisions, and partial translations.

Original Languages of the Bible: 98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, etc. But, the New Testament was written in Koine Greek.

Translations are still the Word of God – translations are also inspired and inerrant to the extent they represent the original text. We believe that the original words are not isolated entities. They come together to make propositions. Hence, as long as the translations are true to the original text, they are just as much the Word of God as the original text.

Difference between the translations of the Quran and the translations of the Bible: In Islam, only the Arabic Quran is considered to be authoritative. This is the language in which it was given and the translations involve interpretation, which can be distorted. School kids are told to memorize the Quran in Arabic even in countries where Arabic is not the main language. Recitation of the Quran has to be in Arabic. Why is this? In Muslim theology there are 2 key words that are important to understand: wahy and ilham. Wahy is the pure revelation of God. It exists in heaven and everything else, including translations, is just interpretation or rendition. Ilham is God revealing his knowledge into the mind of the person. This is similar to the Biblical doctrine of inspiration. Under wahy, there is no such thing as the “original message” or “context” or the “true words” of the prophet Mohammed; the Quran is the word of God.

A good example to explain the difference between the Quran translations and the Bible translations: From Rodney Decker, “Verbal-Plenary Inspiration and Translation” – The International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sévres, Paris, has the official International Prototype Kilogram. It is the standard against which all kilogram measures are established. But, my weight measures are still accurate.

2 Timothy 3   16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

Major points to remember:

  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation.
  • There is no such thing as a word-for-word translation.
  • There is no such thing as consistent formal equivalent translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Dave Brunn) In other words, “modified” acknowledges that the translators have to modify in order to reflect the best meaning. Literal is the goal of the translation.
  • Translations carry the same authority as the original text, to the extent that they reflect the original text.
  • Translations have to be constantly updated.

Couple of examples:

(Taken from Dave Brunn’s book – “One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?”)

Jeremiah 48:4  בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוֹן׃  = sons of roar, crash, noise

 NKJV – “Those who fled stood under the shadow of Heshbon because of exhaustion. But a fire shall come out of Heshbon, a flame from the midst of Sihon, and shall devour the brow of Moab, the crown of the head of the sons of tumult.”

HCSB – “Those who flee will stand exhausted in Heshbon’s shadow because fire has come out from Heshbon and a flame from within Sihon. It will devour Moab’s forehead and the skull of the noisemakers.

NIV – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand helpless, for a fire has gone out from Heshbon, a blaze from the midst of Sihon; it burns the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of the noisy boasters.”

NASB – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand without strength; For a fire has gone forth from Heshbon and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and it has devoured the forehead of Moab and the scalps of the riotous revelers.”

 

Romans 3:20 σὰρξ = Flesh, physical body; human nature, earthly descent, human being, person, man, earthly life, etc. 

NKJV – Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

ESV For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since zthrough the law comes knowledge of sin.

HCSB For no one will be justified in His sight by the works of the law, because the knowledge of sin comes through the law.

NLT For no one can ever be made right with God by doing what the law commands. The law simply shows us how sinful we are.

MessageOur involvement with God’s revelation doesn’t put us right with God. What it does is force us to face our complicity in everyone else’s sin.

NETFor no one is declared righteous before him23 by the works of the law,24 for through the law comes25 the knowledge of sin.

NIV Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.

NASBbecause by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

How to Close a Prayer by Pastor Abidan Shah

HOW TO CLOSE A PRAYER by Pastor Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson

howtocloseaprayer

Introduction: This is our final message in our series on the Lord’s Prayer called “Talking to the Father.” At the end of the service, Ryan will be making an exciting announcement about it so stay tuned. Today’s message is titled – “HOW TO CLOSE A PRAYER.”

Matthew 6   9 In this manner, therefore, pray: Our Father in heaven, Hallowed be Your name. 10 Your kingdom come. Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven. 11 Give us this day our daily bread. 12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 13 And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.

Overall Background: Would you agree that how you end a conversation matters? There are conversations that end on a high note and then there are some that end on a low note. Some end with hope and anticipation while others end with doubt and despair. Some end with joy and gladness while others end with tears and sadness. Prayer is also a conversation and it matters how you end it. Jesus ended the “Lord’s Prayer” with the doxology – “For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.” By the way, according to Jewish custom, prayer was always followed by a conclusion, a doxology. In the Mishnah (m. Ber. 1.4) it says, “In the morning two blessings are to be said…which they ordered to be concluded (with a benediction) must not be left without such a conclusion…” In the Old Testament, you see this repeatedly at the end of prayers. Psalm 106:48 Blessed be the LORD God of Israel From everlasting to everlasting! And let all the people say, “Amen!” Praise the LORD!

Question: How do you end your prayers? Is it with hope and anticipation or is it with doubt and despair? Is it with joy and gladness or is it with tears and sadness? Do you pray? Are you saved? It’s hard to have a conversation with someone you don’t know.

Matthew 613 footnote

Matthew 6:13 with a footnote

This morning we will look at the doxology or the end of the Lord’s Prayer and my desire is that it will encourage you to pray with hope and joy and faith. But before we jump in, there’s an important issue that we need to address. Some of your Bibles may have this statement next to this verse or at the bottom of the page – “The earliest and most reliable manuscripts and other ancient witnesses do not have these words” or “some late manuscripts add the doxology” or “the NU text omits the doxology.” In many translations the doxology is included but in brackets and in several Bibles it is not included at all. What exactly is going on here?

Matthew 613 brackets

Matthew 6:13 in brackets

Matthew 613 omitted

Matthew 6:13 omitted

My first encounter with this issue came when I was in elementary school. I went to St. Aloysius, a Catholic School, where every morning during school assembly we said the Lord’s Prayer. What was startling to me was how the nuns would end the prayer with “And lead us not into temptation. But deliver us from evil. Amen.” Wait a minute! You’re forgetting something! “For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever.” Later on I learned that the Catholic Bible did not have the doxology. Why? Because it was based on the Latin Vulgate which also did not have the doxology. Little did I know at the time that one day I would pursue a PhD in the field of New Testament Textual Criticism (I don’t like to brag about that), which deals with these very issues. I believe that the doxology should be included in the text. Why? I don’t have time to go in depth but let me quickly give a couple of things to remember. But before I do that, let me be clear – I am not a “King James Only.” It’s a great translation but I’m not here to defend it.

  • It is true that the doxology is not found in the earliest Greek manuscripts that have survived (Aleph and B) from the 4th It is also not found
    Gk Mss Dist Matt Doxology

    Greek Mss Distribution of Matthew’s Doxology

    in 3 manuscripts from the 5th century (D Z 0170). But one thing that many people don’t realize is that 4 out of those 5 seem to have a common origin, which narrows their weight.

  • But, what many people don’t realize is that the doxology is found in 1 early Greek manuscript (W) from the 5th century and 2 (sigma and phi) from the 6th
  • Furthermore, the doxology is absent from only 13 or so manuscripts and 10 of them after the 13th
  • But, from the 8th century on 1504 manuscripts have the doxology! One of my friends (Jonathan Borland) did the math and altogether 98.6% of all Greek manuscripts have the doxology, a few with some variations. They had to be copied from somewhere.
  • It is also true that the Latin version omits it (I just mentioned that) and so also the early church fathers (Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Augustine).
  • But the doxology is found in an Old Latin, (k/1), some of the Old Syriac versions, some Coptic, Gothic, Ethiopic, Georgian, and Armenian.

I can go on and on but the question is why did some manuscripts drop it?

  • Maybe because Luke does not include it, some scribes may have felt that Matthew shouldn’t either. They should have remembered that maybe Luke left it out because the Gentiles didn’t see the need for a doxology at the end of every prayer.
  • Maybe because when the church collectively read the passage, they would stop at “deliver us from evil” and the priest alone would say the doxology. This could have become a norm and the doxology got left out by a handful of manuscripts.
  • Personally, I think its because some scribe thought that it was contradicting the opening of the prayer – “Your kingdom come.” It could be that the scribe felt that if the kingdom was still to come in the future, how can we say “Yours is the kingdom,” as if it is already in the present.

We don’t have all the answers but my conclusion is that the evidence is in the favor of the doxology. Please don’t misunderstand – this does not mean that people who don’t include it are liberals or unsaved. That’s not true. So, why did I go through all this trouble? Our young people are bombarded daily with allegations that the original Bible has been lost in transmission. That’s not true and cookie cutter answers won’t work. We have to, as Peter says in I Peter 3:15, “…always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear.”

Back to our message – This doxology reminds us of 3 things about God as we close our prayer:

I. HE IS THE RIGHTFUL OWNER, NOW AND FOREVER. 

“For Yours is the kingdom…forever.”

Background: If you remember the message on – “Your kingdom come” – the Jewish people knew that God was their eternal King. He was their rightful King. And one day He was coming to take His rightful throne over the world and rule forever. By ending with the doxology– “Yours IS the kingdom” – Jesus was saying that even now God was the rightful King. Even now He owned everything and everyone. It was very similar to the doxology that David prayed in I Chronicles 29   10 Therefore David blessed the LORD before all the assembly; and David said: “Blessed are You, LORD God of Israel, our Father, forever and ever. 11 Yours, O LORD, is the greatness, The power and the glory, The victory and the majesty; For all that is in heaven and in earth is Yours; Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, And You are exalted as head over all. If you remember, the people of Israel had rebelled against God and had demanded a king to be like other nations. Even though David was the king of Israel, He was humbly acknowledging that God was Israel’s true king. 12 Both riches and honor come from You, And You reign over all. In Your hand is power and might; In Your hand it is to make great And to give strength to all. 13 “Now therefore, our God, We thank You And praise Your glorious name. Is it any wonder that God repeatedly heard David’s prayer and established His kingdom forever?!

Here’s the point: No matter how we come to God in prayer, we need to remember that God owns this entire creation and everything in it, including all our problems and us. Like that old song—

This is my Father’s world, and to my listening ears

All nature sings, and round me rings the music of the spheres.

This is my Father’s world: I rest me in the thought

Of rocks and trees, of skies and seas;

His hand the wonders wrought.

……….

This is my Father’s world. O let me ne’er forget

That though the wrong seems oft so strong, God is the ruler yet.

This is my Father’s world: the battle is not done:

Jesus Who died shall be satisfied,

And earth and Heav’n be one.

………

This is my Father’s world, should my heart be ever sad?

The lord is King—let the heavens ring. God reigns—let the earth be glad.

Application: When you close in prayer, do you acknowledge to God that He owns it all? Do you proclaim Him king over your circumstances and over yourself?

II. HE CAN CHANGE CIRCUMSTANCES, NOW AND FOREVER.

“For Yours is…the power…forever.”

Background: This almost sounds like the last point but there is a difference. It’s one thing to be the rightful owner but it’s another thing to be in control. To say it differently – you can own something but still be helpless to change a situation. By ending with the doxology – “For Yours is the power” – Jesus was saying that the Father was not only in charge but He also had all the power to change all circumstances. By the way, Jesus demonstrated that when they brought a paralytic to Him on a bed. Matthew 9   2 “…When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, ‘Son, be of good cheer; your sins are forgiven you.’ 3 And at once some of the scribes said within themselves, “This Man blasphemes!” 4  But Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, “Why do you think evil in your hearts? 5 For which is easier, to say, “Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Arise and walk’? 6 But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins”—then He said to the paralytic, “Arise, take up your bed, and go to your house.” 7 And he arose and departed to his house. 8 Now when the multitudes saw it, they marveled and glorified God, who had given such power to men.

Here’s the point: No matter what we are facing in this life, when we come to God in prayer we need to remember that God is perfectly capable of handling that situation, be it physical healing or spiritual healing.

Application: When you close in prayer, do you acknowledge to God that He has power to work in your situation? Do you proclaim Him all-powerful and all capable?

III. HE GETS THE GLORY, NOW AND FOREVER. 

“For Yours is…the glory forever.”

Background: The Greek word for glory is “doksa” from which we get the word “doxology.” At the end of it all, God wants to get the glory and He will get the glory. It means that when your prayers are answered, it’s not because of how strong or wise or patient or even prayerful you were. It was all because of God, for God, and to God. The best example of this is the healing of Lazarus. If you remember, Jesus was a friend of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus from the town of Bethany. He often visited them. One day He got word that Lazarus was sick. Now you would think that Jesus would leave it all and go help out His friends. Instead, listen to John 11:4 When Jesus heard that, He said, “This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified through it.” 5 Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus. 6 So, when He heard that he was sick, He stayed two more days in the place where He was. How strange?! He loved them and so He stayed 2 extra days instead of coming to them immediately! He finally gets there. The sisters are distraught and they get to the grave and Martha says to Him – “Lord, by this time there is a stench, for he has been dead four days.” What was His response? John 11:40 Jesus said to her, “Did I not say to you that if you would believe you would see the glory of God?” What was the result? Not only Lazarus was raised to life but many believed in Him. Ultimately, God got the glory.

Application: The real question is “Are you willing to give Him glory in your life and through your circumstances?” Are you willing to let God use you to draw people to Himself?

Are you saved? Are you praying? Are you praying for His kingdom, His power, and His glory?

Hoi Polloi Episode 8 – History of Biblical Interpretation 1

In this episode of Hoi Polloi, Pastor Shah tackles the history of biblical interpretation. In this first part, he focuses on early Jewish interpretation and how it was influenced by various traditions and schools of thought.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

Hoi Polloi Episode 7 – Digging Deep 1 – The Nature of the Bible

In this episode of Hoi Polloi, Pastor Shah introduces a new Bible study available at Clearview Church on Wednesday nights called Digging Deep. The focus of this study is teaching lay people how to study and apply the Word of God. These podcasts are intended as supplemental material for the weekly study. In this first episode Pastor Shah is interviewed by Renee Jackson and explores what it means for the Bible to be God’s inspired, inerrant, revealed Word to us.

For more information on Digging Deep, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

DAILY DEVOTIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEK – 1 John 1:4 by Abidan Paul Shah

Daily Devotions from the Original Greek – 1 John 1:4 by Abidan Paul Shah

Papyrus 9, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 - recto

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 – recto

Through the years many people have approached me with the desire to study the Bible in the original languages. Not that they don’t trust the Bible in their English translations, they just have a hunger for more. The pattern is quite familiar – They ask me for resources. I provide them with the best tools. They wade into the murky waters of Grammar, Syntax, and Critical Issues of the biblical text. Some go farther than others but inevitably they all turn to familiar shores, never to venture again. It is truly unfortunate… Hence, these “Daily Devotions from the Original Greek.” They are in no way exhaustive exegetical commentaries. They’re simply my personal devotions based on the original languages. Hopefully, they will inspire some to cast anchor and sail into uncharted waters. My prayer is that you won’t despair when the winds howl or the waves threaten to overturn the boat. οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. (Matt. 8:27)

Text: 1 John 1:4 – καὶ ταῦτα γράφομεν ὑμῖν[1], ἵνα ἡ χαρὰ ἡμῶν[2] ᾖ πεπληρωμένη.

(For the meaning and parsing of each Greek word in the verse please see below under parsing.)

My Translation: 1 John 1:4 And these things we write to you so that our joy may be complete.

Some Devotional Thoughts: 

The phrase ‘these things we(I) write to you’ is repeated several times through the letter. It has several applications. One, John wants his readers to know that this letter is not just chit-chat. There is a greater purpose it and it is imperative that they take it seriously. So also for us – we need to take the Word of God seriously. It is not for entertainment but for serious application. Second, John says ‘we write’ here but later its only ‘I write.’ It implies that John wants his readers to understand that his teachings are not just his own creation but they are also supported and endorsed by other authoritative individuals. Christianity is not some isolated idiosyncracy of some eccentric indivdual or some socio-cultural phenomenon. It had a wide range of followers.

Ultimately, the goal of the writing is to bring joy. Although, some Byzantine mss are divided over whether it is personal joy or the joy of the readers, it is still joy that is the final outcome of reading and applying the truth of God’s Word. 

Parsing[3]:

καὶ = and (conjunction from καί)

ταῦτα = these things (pronoun demonstrative accusative neuter plural from οὗτος)

γράφομεν = we write (verb indicative present active 1st person plural from γράφω)

ὑμῖν, = you all (pronoun personal dative plural from σύ)

ἵνα = so that (conjunction from ἵνα)

ἡ = the (definite article nominative feminine singular from ὁ)

χαρὰ = joy (noun nominative feminine singular from χαρά)

ἡμῶν = our (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

ᾖ = may be (verb subjunctive present active 3rd person singular from εἰμί)

πεπληρωμένη = complete/fulfilled (verb participle perfect passive nominative feminine singular from πληρόω)

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[1] The Alexandrian manuscripts read ἡμεῖς while the Byzantine read ὑμῖν.

[2] The Byzantine text is divided at this point. Some read ἡμῶν, while others ὑμῶν.

[3] The parsing is taken from Bible Works 10

Hoi Polloi Podcast Episode 6 – Dr. David A. Black

Hoi Polloi Pod Cast ImageIn this sixth episode of Hoi Polloi, Abidan Shah interviews Dr. David Alan Black, professor of New Testament and Greek at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Wake Forest. Te focus of this episode is New Testament textual criticism. Dr. Black studied under text-critic Harry Sturz. The Sturzian approach favors the reading that has the most text-type support. We will discuss 3 examples under this approach.

If you have any questions or topics you would like to be discussed, tweet them to @hoipolloiradio.

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