DIGGING DEEP 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • 2 Major views of Translation: Formal Equivalent (literal/word-for-word); Functional Equivalent (idiomatic/meaning-based/dynamic)
  • Range of translation: Highly Literal, Modified Literal, Idiomatic, and Unduly Free
  • No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Difference between FORM and MEANING (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  • FORM includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc.
  • MEANING includes concepts or thoughts from the forms

“For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)

How to translate words?

  • “Words” are important. They are the building block of any language, the starting point of form.
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages. Meaning should be viewed as an area and not a precise point.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Case in point: Logos (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions)

  1. Logos has more meanings than just “word”

John 1:1 (NKJV) “In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and the logos was God.”

Acts 1:1 (NKJV) “The former logos I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach.”

Romans 14:12 (NKJV) “So then each of us shall give logos of himself to God.”

1 Corinthians 1:18 (NKJV) “For the logos of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:1 (NKJV) “And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of logos or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:4 (NKJV) “And my logos and my preaching were not with persuasive logos of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.”

Ephesians 4:29 (NKJV) “Let no corrupt logos proceed out of your mouth…”

1 Timothy 1:15 (NKJV) “This is a faithful logos and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.”

1 Peter 3:15 (NKJV) “…always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a logos for the hope that is in you…”

Acts 20:24 (NKJV) “But of no logos; nor do I count my life dear to myself…”

Matthew 5:32 (NKJV) “But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for the logos of sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery…”

  1. Logos is more than just a “single” word

Galatians 5:14 (NKJV) For all the law is fulfilled in one logos, even in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Check the interesting rendering here by NASB)

John 19:7-8 (NKJV) The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God.” Therefore, when Pilate heard that logos, he was the more afraid.”

  1. Guidelines for best translation of logos:
  • Literal translations use “word” most of the time for logos since it is the one that corresponds the most.
  • Idiomatic translations use the meaning that fits the context the most.

How about Revelation 22   18   For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; 19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

– Check Matthew 25:19; I Corinthians 15:2; Philippians 4:15; and Hebrews 4:13 (Logos is missing in the KJV translation because the translators were going for meaning rather than form.)

DIGGING DEEP 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • Translations are still the Word of God. They’re also inspired and inerrant to the extent that they represent the original text.
  • Understand the difference between Wahy and Ilham (direct revelation vs. inspiration of the Holy Spirit)
  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation or word-for-word translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?) I lean more towards the literal side of things.

How Translation Works:

 

2 Major Views of Translation:

  1. Formal Equivalent: It is also known as “literal” or “word-for-word” translation. It tries to preserve the form in the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek writing. This is with regards to both word and grammar.
  2. Functional Equivalent: It is also known as “idiomatic” or “meaning-based” translation. Some have even called it dynamic. It tries to focus on the meaning, naturalness, and clarity.

The matter is more complicated than that. The following is a better Range of Translation, as taken from John Beekman and John Callow’s book, Translating the Word of God.)

 

A.  Highly Literal – The focus is on both words and word orders. For e.g. Interlinears.

Joshua 1:9 “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”

Actual – Joshua 1:9 (BHS) הֲלֹ֤וא צִוִּיתִ֨יךָ֙ חֲזַ֣ק וֶאֱמָ֔ץ אַֽל־תַּעֲרֹ֖ץ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּ֤י עִמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃ פ

Literal Translation – ?·not I-instructed·you be-steadfast-you ! and·be-resolute-you ! must-not-be you-are-being-terrified and·must-not-be you-are-being-dismayed that with·you Yahweh· Elohim-of·you in·all which you-are-going

John 1:12 “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name.”

Actual – ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,

Literal Translation – as many as   but received him   he gives   to them   right   children   of God   to be becoming   to the   ones believing   into the   name of   him.

B.  Modified Literal Translation – It focuses on words and is willing to modify the word order to make sense. For e.g. NKJV, NASB, ESV

C.  Idiomatic Translation – It focuses much more on sounding natural and clear. For e.g. NLT, God’s Word, etc.

Joshua 1:9 “This is my command—be strong and courageous! Do not be afraid or discouraged. For the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.”

John 1:12 “But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.”

D.  Unduly Free – It changes the wording and word order, historical setting, and original context to suit the present audience. For e.g. Cotton Patch Version

Important point to remember: No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Example: Job 19:27

Hebrew – “which I I-shall-perceive for·me and·eyes-of·me they-see and·not alien-one they-are-exhausted kidneys-of·me in·bosom-of·me.”

NKJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, And my eyes shall behold, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!”

ESV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!

NIV – “I will see Him myself; my eyes will look at Him, and not as a stranger. My heart longs within me.

NLT – “I will see him for myself. Yes, I will see him with my own eyes. I am overwhelmed at the thought!

MESSAGE – “see God myself, with my very own eyes. Oh, how I long for that day!

KJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

DIGGING DEEP 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Total number of all the Bible translations in the world: Not Sure.

Old Testament: Samaritan Pentateuch, Aramaic Targums, and the Septuagint.

New Testament: Syriac, Coptic, Latin, Ethiopic, Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Slavonic, English, etc.

Total number of English Bible translations: According to one estimation, there are 900 and another as many as 1400. This includes translations as well as paraphrases, revisions, and partial translations.

Original Languages of the Bible: 98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, etc. But, the New Testament was written in Koine Greek.

Translations are still the Word of God – translations are also inspired and inerrant to the extent they represent the original text. We believe that the original words are not isolated entities. They come together to make propositions. Hence, as long as the translations are true to the original text, they are just as much the Word of God as the original text.

Difference between the translations of the Quran and the translations of the Bible: In Islam, only the Arabic Quran is considered to be authoritative. This is the language in which it was given and the translations involve interpretation, which can be distorted. School kids are told to memorize the Quran in Arabic even in countries where Arabic is not the main language. Recitation of the Quran has to be in Arabic. Why is this? In Muslim theology there are 2 key words that are important to understand: wahy and ilham. Wahy is the pure revelation of God. It exists in heaven and everything else, including translations, is just interpretation or rendition. Ilham is God revealing his knowledge into the mind of the person. This is similar to the Biblical doctrine of inspiration. Under wahy, there is no such thing as the “original message” or “context” or the “true words” of the prophet Mohammed; the Quran is the word of God.

A good example to explain the difference between the Quran translations and the Bible translations: From Rodney Decker, “Verbal-Plenary Inspiration and Translation” – The International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sévres, Paris, has the official International Prototype Kilogram. It is the standard against which all kilogram measures are established. But, my weight measures are still accurate.

2 Timothy 3   16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

Major points to remember:

  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation.
  • There is no such thing as a word-for-word translation.
  • There is no such thing as consistent formal equivalent translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Dave Brunn) In other words, “modified” acknowledges that the translators have to modify in order to reflect the best meaning. Literal is the goal of the translation.
  • Translations carry the same authority as the original text, to the extent that they reflect the original text.
  • Translations have to be constantly updated.

Couple of examples:

(Taken from Dave Brunn’s book – “One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?”)

Jeremiah 48:4  בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוֹן׃  = sons of roar, crash, noise

 NKJV – “Those who fled stood under the shadow of Heshbon because of exhaustion. But a fire shall come out of Heshbon, a flame from the midst of Sihon, and shall devour the brow of Moab, the crown of the head of the sons of tumult.”

HCSB – “Those who flee will stand exhausted in Heshbon’s shadow because fire has come out from Heshbon and a flame from within Sihon. It will devour Moab’s forehead and the skull of the noisemakers.

NIV – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand helpless, for a fire has gone out from Heshbon, a blaze from the midst of Sihon; it burns the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of the noisy boasters.”

NASB – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand without strength; For a fire has gone forth from Heshbon and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and it has devoured the forehead of Moab and the scalps of the riotous revelers.”

 

Romans 3:20 σὰρξ = Flesh, physical body; human nature, earthly descent, human being, person, man, earthly life, etc. 

NKJV – Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

ESV For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since zthrough the law comes knowledge of sin.

HCSB For no one will be justified in His sight by the works of the law, because the knowledge of sin comes through the law.

NLT For no one can ever be made right with God by doing what the law commands. The law simply shows us how sinful we are.

MessageOur involvement with God’s revelation doesn’t put us right with God. What it does is force us to face our complicity in everyone else’s sin.

NETFor no one is declared righteous before him23 by the works of the law,24 for through the law comes25 the knowledge of sin.

NIV Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.

NASBbecause by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

Hoi Polloi 17 – Dr. David Alan Black

Hoi Polloi Logo

In this episode, Abidan Paul Shah will be talking with Dr. David Alan Black about his newest book “Running My Race: Reflections on Life, Loss, Aging, and Forty Years of Teaching.” It’s about learning to deal with the pains of life in a way that draws us closer to the heart of God. Both laypeople and scholars will benefit from this book.

If you have any questions or topics you would like to be discussed, please tweet them to @hoipolloiradio.

Hoi Polloi Podcast 11 – Biblical Words

In this episode, Abidan Paul Shah focuses on biblical words and their meanings. Often people do poor word studies and misinterpret passages. This episode will teach you to study words in their proper contexts.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

DIGGING DEEP – 5 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 5 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Some preliminary remarks about language(s):

  • It is possible to communicate God’s Word in human words without any errors.
  • Avoid claims that one language is intellectually superior to another.
  • The main purpose is to understand how the language works at a particular stage and not how it has evolved. For e.g. Grammar and glamour are related.

Recognize language families:

  • Semitic (Hebrew and Aramaic)

Our focus is Northwest Semitic, which is divided into Canaanite and Aramaic

Abraham probably spoke an ancient form of Aramaic, coming from the Aramean region, Upper Mesopotamia (Deut. 26:5)

They must have adopted a form of Canaanite that later became Hebrew.

Hebrew probably had its glory days under David and Solomon but did not spread beyond the borders of Israel.

Aramaic became an international language under the Assyrians.

Later the people of the Southern Kingdom (Judah) were taken into exile to Babylon where they adopted Aramaic.

When they returned, they kept both Hebrew and Aramaic but the later became more prominent.

98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, presence of Aramaic in the Jerusalem Talmud and targums.

Hebrew can be divided into various periods: Early Biblical Hebrew (oldest poetic composition), Classical Biblical Hebrew (pre-exilic to post-exilic), Late Biblical Hebrew (Persian Period).

Hebrew almost became a dead language after the destruction of the temple and hence the Masoretes had to insert vowels into the text.

  • Indo-European (Greek)

Mycenean Greek goes back to the 13th century BC.

It was fragmented – Ionic (Western coast of Asia Minor), Attica (Athens), Aeolic (Thessaly), Doric (Corinth)

Athens became the cultural center and hence Attic played a big role in Greek literature.

Because of Alexander the Great (356-323BC), it became the lingua franca.

It went through some radical changes and became koine, the language in which the New Testament was written.

Koine is not “Holy Spirit” Greek, just common Greek of the time.

 

For our purpose of studying the Bible in depth, language can be broken down in 3 parts: 

  1. Word – is the building block of language. But, without a context, words are almost meaningless. For e.g. “Set that on the counter” and “Counter that argument.” One of the most common mistakes in word studies is “Root Fallacy” – meaning is determined by etymology (origin of the word). For e.g. “Good-bye” comes from the Anglo-Saxon “God Be With You.” But, the word “nice” comes from the Latin necius, which means “ignorant.” Other examples: bureau, express, beef, and pork.

Common Greek Misuse: “agapao” vs phileo. Agapao = divine love and phileo = brotherly love. But it is not so clear-cut. There are many overlaps. In Sam 13:15, agapao (LXX) is used for Amnon’s rape of his sister. II Tim 4:10 – Demas left Paul because he loved this present, evil world. Again, John 3:35 – Love =agapao but John 5:20 – Love = phileo.

Along with the syntax, we need literary and historical context. Also, the speech patterns of biblical Hebrew and Greek culture must determine the principles for word study. This does not mean that every root word study is useless.

  1. Sentence – It’s not enough to look at what the Bible contains but what it communicates. Sentence is a complete thought. Some cautions here as well regarding excessive use of grammatical categories. For e.g. Aorist in Romans 6:10
  1. Paragraph – Sometimes the Bible indicates where it starts and ends but many times it doesn’t. The context is key. There are many complicated tools to recognize shifts in paragraphs but just being sensitive to the context can help a lot.

 

Test Passages:

  1. Difference in meaning of the words “faith,” “works,” and “justify” as seen in Romans 4:1-5 and James 2:14-26.

 

  1. What is the place of “faith” in Mark 11:22 vs. Galatians 2:16, Acts 3:16, Colossians 2:12?

 

  1. How specific is a usage? Philippians 1:27 and Galatians 1:12

 

  1. Is this too much grammar? Matthew 7:7

 

  1. What is the flow of Romans 1:16-18?

DIGGING DEEP – 3 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 3 by Abidan Paul Shah

Click here to view this session in its entirety.

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Last Week – Earliest period of biblical interpretation – Early Jewish Interpretation (Hoi Polloi Podcast #8)

  • Pharisees (Midrash),
  • Sadducees (Literal),
  • Essenes and Qumran Community (Pesher = prophecy),
  • Diaspora (Allegory)

Now we come to the 2nd period of biblical interpretation – Jesus and the Apostles

  • How they used the OT really matters? It’s not just about how they quoted or alluded to the OT. It’s about where does Christ fit in the grand scheme of God’s revelation, the Bible. It’s the mindset of the Jesus and the NT writers.
  • It’s also about how we can now study the Bible, the OT and the NT. 

There are basically 3 schools of thoughts here:

  1. Single Meaning, Unified Referents
  • What the OT writer intends by his words is what the NT author intends.

John 13:18   “I do not speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He who eats bread with Me has lifted up his heel against Me.’

Psalm 41:9 Even my own familiar friend in whom I trusted, Who ate my bread, Has lifted up his heel against me.

Passages that help – II Samuel 7:12-25; Psalm 132:12

  1. Single Meaning, Multiple Contexts and Referents
  • The words of the OT writer frequently take on new dimensions of significance and are applied to new referents and new situations as God’s purposes unfold in the larger canonical context.

Acts 4 24 So when they heard that, they raised their voice to God with one accord and said: “Lord, You are God, who made heaven and earth and the sea, and all that is in them, 25 who by the mouth of Your servant David have said: “Why did the nations rage, And the people plot vain things? 26 The kings of the earth took their stand, And the rulers were gathered together Against the LORD and against His Christ.’

Psalm 2 1  Why do the nations rage, And the people plot a vain thing? 2 The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD and against His Anointed,

  1. Fuller Meaning, Single Goal
  • NT writers often perceive new meanings in OT texts that are not necessarily closely related to the meanings intended by the original authors. This is based on the conviction that the Scriptures point to and are fulfilled in Christ.

Matt. 2:14   When he arose, he took the young Child and His mother by night and departed for Egypt, 15 and was there until the death of Herod, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, “Out of Egypt I called My Son.”

Hosea 11:1 “When Israel was a child, I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son.

Test Passages:

Matt. 2:16   Then Herod, when he saw that he was deceived by the wise men, was exceedingly angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all its districts, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had determined from the wise men. 17 Then was fulfilled what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying: 18 “A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation, weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, Refusing to be comforted, Because they are no more.”

Jer. 31:15   Thus says the LORD: “A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children, Refusing to be comforted for her children, Because they are no more.”

 

Romans 10 6 But the righteousness of faith speaks in this way, “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ down from above) 7 or, “ ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). 8 But what does it say? “The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart” (that is, the word of faith which we preach): 9 that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.

Deut. 30:11   “For this commandment which I command you today is not too mysterious for you, nor is it far off. 12 It is not in heaven, that you should say, “Who will ascend into heaven for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ 13 Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, “Who will go over the sea for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ 14 But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it.

 

The Analogy of the house with foundation and roof

Final Comments: Yes – we do see Jesus using the exegetical methods of his contemporaries to answer them (we saw this last week) but that does not mean that He endorsed their methods. If anything, we only see the pesher type method being used repeatedly. As to the apostles, there is no one system of Jewish exegesis that they adhere to. We do need to deal with the advancement in hermeneutical understanding of rabbinic exegesis (Midrash). But, we should deal as sincerely and intricately as possible with the original context first. We need to be slow in using scripture to interpret scripture (Analogy of Faith). We should keep Israel and church distinct. God has many promises and prophecies still to be fulfilled for them. Nonetheless, Christ is the only way to salvation and He is the fulfillment and the end of Scripture

 

DAILY DEVOTIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEK – 1 John 1:4 by Abidan Paul Shah

Daily Devotions from the Original Greek – 1 John 1:4 by Abidan Paul Shah

Papyrus 9, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 - recto

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 – recto

Through the years many people have approached me with the desire to study the Bible in the original languages. Not that they don’t trust the Bible in their English translations, they just have a hunger for more. The pattern is quite familiar – They ask me for resources. I provide them with the best tools. They wade into the murky waters of Grammar, Syntax, and Critical Issues of the biblical text. Some go farther than others but inevitably they all turn to familiar shores, never to venture again. It is truly unfortunate… Hence, these “Daily Devotions from the Original Greek.” They are in no way exhaustive exegetical commentaries. They’re simply my personal devotions based on the original languages. Hopefully, they will inspire some to cast anchor and sail into uncharted waters. My prayer is that you won’t despair when the winds howl or the waves threaten to overturn the boat. οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. (Matt. 8:27)

Text: 1 John 1:4 – καὶ ταῦτα γράφομεν ὑμῖν[1], ἵνα ἡ χαρὰ ἡμῶν[2] ᾖ πεπληρωμένη.

(For the meaning and parsing of each Greek word in the verse please see below under parsing.)

My Translation: 1 John 1:4 And these things we write to you so that our joy may be complete.

Some Devotional Thoughts: 

The phrase ‘these things we(I) write to you’ is repeated several times through the letter. It has several applications. One, John wants his readers to know that this letter is not just chit-chat. There is a greater purpose it and it is imperative that they take it seriously. So also for us – we need to take the Word of God seriously. It is not for entertainment but for serious application. Second, John says ‘we write’ here but later its only ‘I write.’ It implies that John wants his readers to understand that his teachings are not just his own creation but they are also supported and endorsed by other authoritative individuals. Christianity is not some isolated idiosyncracy of some eccentric indivdual or some socio-cultural phenomenon. It had a wide range of followers.

Ultimately, the goal of the writing is to bring joy. Although, some Byzantine mss are divided over whether it is personal joy or the joy of the readers, it is still joy that is the final outcome of reading and applying the truth of God’s Word. 

Parsing[3]:

καὶ = and (conjunction from καί)

ταῦτα = these things (pronoun demonstrative accusative neuter plural from οὗτος)

γράφομεν = we write (verb indicative present active 1st person plural from γράφω)

ὑμῖν, = you all (pronoun personal dative plural from σύ)

ἵνα = so that (conjunction from ἵνα)

ἡ = the (definite article nominative feminine singular from ὁ)

χαρὰ = joy (noun nominative feminine singular from χαρά)

ἡμῶν = our (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

ᾖ = may be (verb subjunctive present active 3rd person singular from εἰμί)

πεπληρωμένη = complete/fulfilled (verb participle perfect passive nominative feminine singular from πληρόω)

———————————

[1] The Alexandrian manuscripts read ἡμεῖς while the Byzantine read ὑμῖν.

[2] The Byzantine text is divided at this point. Some read ἡμῶν, while others ὑμῶν.

[3] The parsing is taken from Bible Works 10

DAILY DEVOTIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEK – 1 John 1:3 by Abidan Paul Shah

Daily Devotions from the Original Greek – 1 John 1:3 by Abidan Paul Shah

Papyrus 9, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 - recto

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 – recto

Through the years many people have approached me with the desire to study the Bible in the original languages. Not that they don’t trust the Bible in their English translations, they just have a hunger for more. The pattern is quite familiar – They ask me for resources. I provide them with the best tools. They wade into the murky waters of Grammar, Syntax, and Critical Issues of the biblical text. Some go farther than others but inevitably they all turn to familiar shores, never to venture again. It is truly unfortunate… Hence, these “Daily Devotions from the Original Greek.” They are in no way exhaustive exegetical commentaries. They’re simply my personal devotions based on the original languages. Hopefully, they will inspire some to cast anchor and sail into uncharted waters. My prayer is that you won’t despair when the winds howl or the waves threaten to overturn the boat. οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. (Matt. 8:27)

Text:

1 John 1:3 – Ὃ ἑωράκαμεν καὶ ἀκηκόαμεν, ἀπαγγέλλομεν ὑμῖν, ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς κοινωνίαν ἔχητε μεθ᾽ ἡμῶν· καὶ ἡ κοινωνία δὲ ἡ ἡμετέρα μετὰ τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ·

(For the meaning and parsing of each Greek word in the verse please see below under parsing.

My Translation:

1 John 1:3 What we have seen and heard, we announce to you, in order that even you may have fellowship with us and our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son, Jesus Christ.

Some Devotional Thoughts:

John tells his readers that he is not content with having been with Jesus and seen His glory. He invites them to have fellowship with himself and those who have been with Jesus. In essence they will be having fellowship with God the Father and Jesus the Son. Unfortunately, Christianity today is very selfish. We have a personal relationship with God. We feel His presence in us. To the contrary, true fellowship with Jesus invites others to participate in the same joy and truth. Are you inviting others to join in your fellowship with Jesus? In fact, when unbelievers come in contact with us, it will create a desire in them to want their own personal relationship with Jesus.

Here’s something else – Christ is not just the Messiah of the Jewish people. He is also the Son of God. He is God in flesh. That is the heart of Christianity! Is Christ God to you?

Parsing[1]:

Ὃ = What (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἑωράκαμεν = we have seen (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ὁράω)

καὶ – and (conjunction from καί)

ἀκηκόαμεν, = we have heard (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ἀκούω)

ἀπαγγέλλομεν = we announce (verb indicative present active 1st person plural from ἀπαγγέλλω)

ὑμῖν, = to you (pronoun personal dative plural from σύ)

ἵνα = in order that (conjunction from ἵνα)

καὶ = even (adverb from καί)

ὑμεῖς = you (pronoun personal nominative plural from σύ)

κοινωνίαν = fellowship (noun accusative feminine singular from κοινωνία)

ἔχητε = may have (verb subjunctive present active 2nd person plural from ἔχω)

μεθ᾽ = with (preposition from μετά)

ἡμῶν = us (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

καὶ = and (conjunction from καί)

ἡ = the (definite article nominative feminine singular from ὁ)

κοινωνία = fellowship (noun nominative feminine singular from κοινωνία)

δὲ = and/but (conjunction from δέ)

ἡ = the (definite article nominative feminine singular from ὁ)

ἡμετέρα = us (pronoun possessive nominative feminine singular from ἡμέτερος)

μετὰ = with (preposition from μετά)

τοῦ = of the (definite article genitive masculine singular from ὁ)

πατρὸς = of father (noun genitive masculine singular from πατήρ)

καὶ = and (conjunction from καί)

μετὰ = with (preposition from μετά)

τοῦ = of the (definite article genitive masculine singular from ὁ)

υἱοῦ = of son (noun genitive masculine singular from υἱός)

αὐτοῦ = his (pronoun personal genitive masculine singular from αὐτός)

Ἰησοῦ = Jesus (noun genitive masculine singular from Ἰησοῦς)

Χριστοῦ. = Christ (noun genitive masculine singular from Χριστός)

[1] The parsing is taken from Bible Works 10

DAILY DEVOTIONS FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEK – 1 John 1:1 by Abidan Paul Shah

Daily Devotions from the Original Greek – 1 John 1:1 by Abidan Paul Shah

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 - recto

Papyrus 9, P. Oxy 402, 3rd century, 1 John, 4,11–12,14–17 – recto

 Through the years many people have approached me with the desire to study the Bible in the original languages. Not that they don’t trust the Bible in their English translations, they just have a hunger for more. The pattern is quite familiar – They ask me for resources. I provide them with the best tools. They wade into the murky waters of Grammar, Syntax, and Critical Issues of the biblical text. Some go farther than others but inevitably they all turn to familiar shores, never to venture again. It is truly unfortunate… Hence, these “Daily Devotions from the Original Greek.” They are in no way exhaustive exegetical commentaries. They’re simply my personal devotions based on the original languages. Hopefully, they will inspire some to cast anchor and sail into uncharted waters. My prayer is that you won’t despair when the winds howl or the waves threaten to overturn the boat. οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. (Matt. 8:27)

Text:

1 John 1:1 – Ὃ ἦν ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς, ὃ ἀκηκόαμεν, ὃ ἑωράκαμεν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν, ὃ ἐθεασάμεθα καὶ αἱ χεῖρες ἡμῶν ἐψηλάφησαν περὶ τοῦ λόγου τῆς ζωῆς-

Parsing[1]:

Ὃ = What (pronoun relative nominative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἦν = was (verb indicative imperfect active 3rd person singular from εἰμί)

ἀπ᾽ = from (preposition genitive from ἀπό)

ἀρχῆς, = the beginning (noun genitive feminine singular common from ἀρχή)

ὃ = whom (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἀκηκόαμεν, = we have heard (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ἀκούω)

ὃ = whom (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἑωράκαμεν = we have seen (verb indicative perfect active 1st person plural from ὁράω)

τοῖς definite article dative masculine plural from ὁ)

ὀφθαλμοῖς = eyes (noun dative masculine plural common from ὀφθαλμός)

ἡμῶν, = our (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

ὃ = whom (pronoun relative accusative neuter singular from ὅς)

ἐθεασάμεθα = we have witnessed (verb indicative aorist middle 1st person plural from θεάομαι)

καὶ = and (conjunction coordinating from καί)

αἱ definite article nominative feminine plural from ὁ)

χεῖρες = hands (noun nominative feminine plural common from χείρ)

ἡμῶν = our (pronoun personal genitive plural from ἐγώ)

ἐψηλάφησαν = have touched (verb indicative aorist active 3rd person plural from ψηλαφάω)

περὶ = with regard to (preposition genitive from περί)

τοῦ = the (definite article genitive masculine singular from ὁ)

λόγου = Word (noun genitive masculine singular common from λόγος)

τῆς definite article genitive feminine singular from ὁ)

ζωῆς = of Life (noun genitive feminine singular common from ζωή)

My Translation:

1 John 1:1 – What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have witnessed and our hands have touched, with regard to the Word of Life.

Some Devotional Thoughts:

John begins his letter by spotlighting Jesus Christ. What an awesome way to begin a letter! What if we began every conversation with Christ? Won’t that keep our communication on the right path? Won’t that resolve most of our miscommunications in life? This does not mean that we have to verbally say His name or deliberately interject His name before we say anything else. What it does mean is that we need to have Christ at the forefront of our minds and hearts before we interact with any person – friend or foe. This will help guide our conversation in a God directed, empowered, and pleasing way.

What is also interesting to me is that John brings out the divine and human elements of the person of Christ. First, Christ is no mere man. He was from the beginning, which means He always was. In other words, He is God. Second, Christ is no mere distant deity. He came into this world. Men, women, boys, and girls had the opportunity to hear Him, see Him, witness His power and glory, and touch Him. Christ is God come beside us – touchable, vulnerable, and examinable.

Finally, the title that John attributes to Jesus is so majestic and yet simple – Word of Life. We know both the words “word” and “life.” Word = we use them all day long. They are uncountable. They may be petty or profound. Life = we exist and we experience. It is physical existence and yet more – emotional and mental subsistence. To say “Christ is the Word of Life” means Christ is the author, sustainer, meaning, and goal of life. Wow! Is Christ that central to your physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual existence? Why not ask Him to be?

[1] The parsing is taken from Bible Works 10

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