DIGGING DEEP 4 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 4 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah 

Recap from last week:

  • Know the difference between Form and Meaning (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions). “Form” includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc and “meaning” includes concepts or thoughts from the forms
  • “For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Criteria for Adjustment in Bible Translation (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  1. Required by the grammar of the target language
  • In Hebrew the standard word order is Verb-Subject-Object-Modifier.

וַתָּ֣קָם חַנָּ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֛י אָכְלָ֥ה בְשִׁלֹ֖ה וְאַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁתֹ֑ה

(Arose – Hannah – after – eating – in Shiloh – and after – drinking – I Samuel 1:9)

  • In English the standard word order is Subject-Verb-Object-Modifier.

“So Hannah arose after they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh.”

  • Matthew 1:6 Ἰεσσαὶ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Δαυὶδ τὸν βασιλέα. Δαυὶδ δὲ ⸆ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου,

Actual Translation – “and Jesse begot the David the king. David the king begot the Solomon by the of the Uriah.”

“Wife” has to be added and “the” has to be omitted twice.

  1. Required to ensure correct meaning
  • Romans 6   1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ⸀ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; 2 μὴ γένοιτο….
  • Actual translation – Romans 6   1 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? 2 May it not become… (Let it not become)
  • Check KJV, NKJV, NIV
  1. Required to ensure clarity
  • The translators added, “who had been” in Matthew 1:6 to make sure that Bathsheba was not married to Uriah at the time Solomon was born.
  • Check NASB, KJV, NKJV, NIV
  • Ephesians 1:13
  1. Required to ensure naturalness
  • “Bathsheba” added by NASB
  • “And” omitted by NASB
  • “Begat” should be replaced with much better contemporary word… (“Fathered” implies that David didn’t really have a relationship with Solomon)

DIGGING DEEP 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • 2 Major views of Translation: Formal Equivalent (literal/word-for-word); Functional Equivalent (idiomatic/meaning-based/dynamic)
  • Range of translation: Highly Literal, Modified Literal, Idiomatic, and Unduly Free
  • No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Difference between FORM and MEANING (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  • FORM includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc.
  • MEANING includes concepts or thoughts from the forms

“For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)

How to translate words?

  • “Words” are important. They are the building block of any language, the starting point of form.
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages. Meaning should be viewed as an area and not a precise point.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Case in point: Logos (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions)

  1. Logos has more meanings than just “word”

John 1:1 (NKJV) “In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and the logos was God.”

Acts 1:1 (NKJV) “The former logos I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach.”

Romans 14:12 (NKJV) “So then each of us shall give logos of himself to God.”

1 Corinthians 1:18 (NKJV) “For the logos of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:1 (NKJV) “And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of logos or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:4 (NKJV) “And my logos and my preaching were not with persuasive logos of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.”

Ephesians 4:29 (NKJV) “Let no corrupt logos proceed out of your mouth…”

1 Timothy 1:15 (NKJV) “This is a faithful logos and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.”

1 Peter 3:15 (NKJV) “…always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a logos for the hope that is in you…”

Acts 20:24 (NKJV) “But of no logos; nor do I count my life dear to myself…”

Matthew 5:32 (NKJV) “But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for the logos of sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery…”

  1. Logos is more than just a “single” word

Galatians 5:14 (NKJV) For all the law is fulfilled in one logos, even in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Check the interesting rendering here by NASB)

John 19:7-8 (NKJV) The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God.” Therefore, when Pilate heard that logos, he was the more afraid.”

  1. Guidelines for best translation of logos:
  • Literal translations use “word” most of the time for logos since it is the one that corresponds the most.
  • Idiomatic translations use the meaning that fits the context the most.

How about Revelation 22   18   For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; 19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

– Check Matthew 25:19; I Corinthians 15:2; Philippians 4:15; and Hebrews 4:13 (Logos is missing in the KJV translation because the translators were going for meaning rather than form.)

DIGGING DEEP 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • Translations are still the Word of God. They’re also inspired and inerrant to the extent that they represent the original text.
  • Understand the difference between Wahy and Ilham (direct revelation vs. inspiration of the Holy Spirit)
  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation or word-for-word translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?) I lean more towards the literal side of things.

How Translation Works:

 

2 Major Views of Translation:

  1. Formal Equivalent: It is also known as “literal” or “word-for-word” translation. It tries to preserve the form in the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek writing. This is with regards to both word and grammar.
  2. Functional Equivalent: It is also known as “idiomatic” or “meaning-based” translation. Some have even called it dynamic. It tries to focus on the meaning, naturalness, and clarity.

The matter is more complicated than that. The following is a better Range of Translation, as taken from John Beekman and John Callow’s book, Translating the Word of God.)

 

A.  Highly Literal – The focus is on both words and word orders. For e.g. Interlinears.

Joshua 1:9 “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”

Actual – Joshua 1:9 (BHS) הֲלֹ֤וא צִוִּיתִ֨יךָ֙ חֲזַ֣ק וֶאֱמָ֔ץ אַֽל־תַּעֲרֹ֖ץ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּ֤י עִמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃ פ

Literal Translation – ?·not I-instructed·you be-steadfast-you ! and·be-resolute-you ! must-not-be you-are-being-terrified and·must-not-be you-are-being-dismayed that with·you Yahweh· Elohim-of·you in·all which you-are-going

John 1:12 “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name.”

Actual – ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,

Literal Translation – as many as   but received him   he gives   to them   right   children   of God   to be becoming   to the   ones believing   into the   name of   him.

B.  Modified Literal Translation – It focuses on words and is willing to modify the word order to make sense. For e.g. NKJV, NASB, ESV

C.  Idiomatic Translation – It focuses much more on sounding natural and clear. For e.g. NLT, God’s Word, etc.

Joshua 1:9 “This is my command—be strong and courageous! Do not be afraid or discouraged. For the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.”

John 1:12 “But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.”

D.  Unduly Free – It changes the wording and word order, historical setting, and original context to suit the present audience. For e.g. Cotton Patch Version

Important point to remember: No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Example: Job 19:27

Hebrew – “which I I-shall-perceive for·me and·eyes-of·me they-see and·not alien-one they-are-exhausted kidneys-of·me in·bosom-of·me.”

NKJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, And my eyes shall behold, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!”

ESV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!

NIV – “I will see Him myself; my eyes will look at Him, and not as a stranger. My heart longs within me.

NLT – “I will see him for myself. Yes, I will see him with my own eyes. I am overwhelmed at the thought!

MESSAGE – “see God myself, with my very own eyes. Oh, how I long for that day!

KJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

DIGGING DEEP 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Total number of all the Bible translations in the world: Not Sure.

Old Testament: Samaritan Pentateuch, Aramaic Targums, and the Septuagint.

New Testament: Syriac, Coptic, Latin, Ethiopic, Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Slavonic, English, etc.

Total number of English Bible translations: According to one estimation, there are 900 and another as many as 1400. This includes translations as well as paraphrases, revisions, and partial translations.

Original Languages of the Bible: 98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, etc. But, the New Testament was written in Koine Greek.

Translations are still the Word of God – translations are also inspired and inerrant to the extent they represent the original text. We believe that the original words are not isolated entities. They come together to make propositions. Hence, as long as the translations are true to the original text, they are just as much the Word of God as the original text.

Difference between the translations of the Quran and the translations of the Bible: In Islam, only the Arabic Quran is considered to be authoritative. This is the language in which it was given and the translations involve interpretation, which can be distorted. School kids are told to memorize the Quran in Arabic even in countries where Arabic is not the main language. Recitation of the Quran has to be in Arabic. Why is this? In Muslim theology there are 2 key words that are important to understand: wahy and ilham. Wahy is the pure revelation of God. It exists in heaven and everything else, including translations, is just interpretation or rendition. Ilham is God revealing his knowledge into the mind of the person. This is similar to the Biblical doctrine of inspiration. Under wahy, there is no such thing as the “original message” or “context” or the “true words” of the prophet Mohammed; the Quran is the word of God.

A good example to explain the difference between the Quran translations and the Bible translations: From Rodney Decker, “Verbal-Plenary Inspiration and Translation” – The International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sévres, Paris, has the official International Prototype Kilogram. It is the standard against which all kilogram measures are established. But, my weight measures are still accurate.

2 Timothy 3   16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

Major points to remember:

  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation.
  • There is no such thing as a word-for-word translation.
  • There is no such thing as consistent formal equivalent translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Dave Brunn) In other words, “modified” acknowledges that the translators have to modify in order to reflect the best meaning. Literal is the goal of the translation.
  • Translations carry the same authority as the original text, to the extent that they reflect the original text.
  • Translations have to be constantly updated.

Couple of examples:

(Taken from Dave Brunn’s book – “One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?”)

Jeremiah 48:4  בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוֹן׃  = sons of roar, crash, noise

 NKJV – “Those who fled stood under the shadow of Heshbon because of exhaustion. But a fire shall come out of Heshbon, a flame from the midst of Sihon, and shall devour the brow of Moab, the crown of the head of the sons of tumult.”

HCSB – “Those who flee will stand exhausted in Heshbon’s shadow because fire has come out from Heshbon and a flame from within Sihon. It will devour Moab’s forehead and the skull of the noisemakers.

NIV – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand helpless, for a fire has gone out from Heshbon, a blaze from the midst of Sihon; it burns the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of the noisy boasters.”

NASB – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand without strength; For a fire has gone forth from Heshbon and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and it has devoured the forehead of Moab and the scalps of the riotous revelers.”

 

Romans 3:20 σὰρξ = Flesh, physical body; human nature, earthly descent, human being, person, man, earthly life, etc. 

NKJV – Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

ESV For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since zthrough the law comes knowledge of sin.

HCSB For no one will be justified in His sight by the works of the law, because the knowledge of sin comes through the law.

NLT For no one can ever be made right with God by doing what the law commands. The law simply shows us how sinful we are.

MessageOur involvement with God’s revelation doesn’t put us right with God. What it does is force us to face our complicity in everyone else’s sin.

NETFor no one is declared righteous before him23 by the works of the law,24 for through the law comes25 the knowledge of sin.

NIV Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.

NASBbecause by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

WHEN GOD CALLS YOU (Clearview Followup)

WHEN GOD CALLS YOU (CLEARVIEW FOLLOWUP) by Pastor Shah, Clearview Church, HendersonClearview Followup

Here are some key points to remember from the message:

  1. A Historical Fact to Learn: Capernaum was much more than just a fishing village. As I’ve mentioned before, Nicole and I have been there. It is on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee. In ancient times it sat along an important trade route known as the Via Maris (Way of the Sea), which connected Egypt in the South to Syria in the North and Mesopotamia in the East. So people from everywhere passed through Capernaum. Not only that but because of the Sea of Galilee Capernaum was an important port for importing and exporting cargo. This  It was a big checkpoint for customs. This is why so many tax collectors/customs officials were there. There was a small Roman garrison in Capernaum. You can only imagine the brothels and prostitutes everywhere. Isn’t it amazing that Jesus picked Capernaum to be the base of His early ministry? Why? Because people from everywhere were there, especially the nonreligious types.
  2. A Theological Truth to Believe: What kind of a call did Jesus give to Levi/Matthew? Was it a call to salvation? I don’t think so because there’s nothing about belief in Jesus. Was it a call to discipleship, to growth in his faith? I don’t think so because discipleship does not mean that you have to quit your job. What kind of a call was this? It was a specific call that Jesus gave only one other time to people He picked to be His disciples. This was a call to a very specific life of being an apostle.
  3. A Biblical Principle to Apply: Matthew’s call was to go and call others. God reaches people through people. We are the instruments of His gospel. As a pastor, I may not be able to reach people that you can reach. They won’t listen to me but they will definitely listen to you. There are many people at Clearview who have come because a friend or neighbor invited them. Do you invite people to meet Jesus?

No Benchwarmers by Pastor Abidan Shah

NO BENCH WARMERS – 1 by Pastor Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson

nobenchwarmersIntroduction: Today I’m starting a brand new series called – “NO BENCH WARMERS.” For most churches, including ours, the calendar does not begin in January but in August or September. This series is designed to prepare us for our new church year.

Exodus 18   13 And so it was, on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood before Moses from morning until evening. 14 So when Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did for the people, he said, “What is this thing that you are doing for the people? Why do you alone sit, and all the people stand before you from morning until evening?” 15 And Moses said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to inquire of God. 16 When they have a difficulty, they come to me, and I judge between one and another; and I make known the statutes of God and His laws.” 17 So Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “The thing that you do is not good. 18 Both you and these people who are with you will surely wear yourselves out.

Bridge: How many of y’all have heard the adage or saying – “20% of people at church do 80% of the work”? Is that true or false? By the way, it’s is not just at church; it’s everywhere. In the secular world it’s sometimes called the “80-20 rule,” or “the law of the vital few” or even the “Pareto Principle” after the Italian economist who first observed it. Why is it that 80% of people are inactive? I’ve heard all kinds of reasons – “People are just lazy,” “They don’t want to get involved,” “They don’t know the needs,” or “You just have to ask people.” The goal of this series is to change that statistic, to move people being “bench warmers” to “getting in the game”?

Context: Each message in this series is going to come from a different book in the Bible. The first sermon is from the passage we just read in Exodus 18 where 3500 years ago Moses had to deal with the same question – “How can I move the people of Israel from the bench to the field?”

Question: Are you in the game or are you just a bench warmer? Do you just come, sit, listen, and leave or do you have a part in the greatest game in the world? The greatest game in the world is not basketball, football, baseball, soccer, or any one of the Olympic games. It is the battle for the soul of every man, woman, boy, and girl. The goal is to connect that soul to its creator, to God. There’s just one rule – “Only one mediator between God and man, Jesus Christ. You have to come to Jesus.” There is no rematch. You get only one life. There is a shot clock but you can’t see it. By the way, if you are breathing, you’re already in the game. Your clock is already ticking. Two Questions: Have you come to Jesus? Are you helping others come to Jesus?

In this message we will learn why some churches become weary and what has to happen. Let the Holy Spirit speak to your hearts. 3 things stand out in this passage:

I. POSITIVE EXCITEMENT 

Exodus 18   1 And Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses and for Israel His people—that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt….5…came with his sons and his wife to Moses in the wilderness, where he was encamped at the mountain of God.

Background: Moses had left his wife Zipporah and two sons with his father-in-law when he went to Egypt to free the Hebrews. The news got back to Midian that it had happened and God’s people were free. So Jethro brought Moses’s family to him. Picture the excitement as they arrived at the camp. 9 Then Jethro rejoiced for all the good which the LORD had done for Israel, whom He had delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians. 10 And Jethro said, “Blessed be the LORD, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians and out of the hand of Pharaoh, and who has delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods; for in the very thing in which they behaved proudly, He was above them.” It goes on to tell us that Jethro was also a believer and offered burnt offerings and sacrifices to God. The point is that Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, was genuinely glad at what God had done for the people of Israel through his son-in-law.

Keep in mind that not everything was perfect. In chapter 14 when the people of Israel were trapped between the Red Sea and Pharaoh’s army, they had turned on Moses, saying – “We told you to leave us alone.” In chapter 15, just 3 days into the wilderness, they were thirsty and complained against Moses. In chapter 16, just a month or so later, they complained against Moses and Aaron saying, “We had pots of meat and bread in Egypt and here you are killing us.” In chapter 16 again, the people refused to keep the Sabbath and tried to gather manna. In chapter 17, they were thirsty again and tried to stone Moses in their anger. In chapter 17, the Amalekites attacked the people of Israel. But listen to Exodus 18:8 “And Moses told his father-in-law all that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardship that had come upon them on the way, and how the LORD had delivered them.” Here’s the point – You can either focus on the negatives or you can focus on the positives.

Application: Do you see the positive that God is doing at Clearview? Are you genuinely excited at the lives that are being saved, the children that are coming to Christ, the young people that are gathering, the marriages that are being reconciled, the homes that are being restored, and the community that is being transformed? Sometimes this is very hard to understand and appreciate in the church culture where it is more natural to groan, moan, and complain. The early church had their list of problems but it says in Acts 2:46 “…they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart, 47 praising God and having favor with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily those who were being saved. Here’s a principle: Excitement precedes involvement.

II. NEGATIVE OBSERVATION 

13 And so it was, on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood before Moses from morning until evening.

Background: According to some estimates the population of the people of Israel that left Egypt with Moses was altogether 2-2.5 million. To give you an idea of how big that number is – according to the United States Census Bureau, the combined population of the Triangle (Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill), as of 2014, was a little over 2 million people. Imagine a crowd that big! Out of them I would assume at least a few thousand are standing in line everyday over personal problems, disputes, and crimes.

Here’s an important principle – Just because God is doing wonderful things among His people does not mean that His people will be problem free. I hear people say – “the church has problems.” Folks – Moses had problems sitting in the shadow of the cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night! The early church had problems just days after receiving the Holy Spirit in all power. As long as we live in this sinful world where there is a Satan and we still have our sinful natures, there will be problems. The question is “What do we do with those problems?” We cannot deny them. We have to deal with them biblically, prayerfully, graciously, and courageously. That’s exactly what Moses was doing.

Moses’ father-in-law was a godly man. He did not say – “Moses, you have a horrible bunch of people. This thing isn’t gonna last” He saw a deeper problem. 14 So when Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did for the people, he said, “What is this thing that you are doing for the people? Why do you alone sit, and all the people stand before you from morning until evening?” Don’t misunderstand this question. Jethro was not saying – “Moses – Who made you the head honcho? Do you have control issues? Why can’t people go to others?” Jethro’s remark was based on a genuine heartfelt concern for how much Moses was doing.

Listen to the rest of the dialogue – 15 And Moses said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to inquire of God. 16 When they have a difficulty, they come to me, and I judge between one and another; and I make known the statutes of God and His laws.” 17 So Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “The thing that you do is not good. 18 Both you and these people who are with you will surely wear yourselves out. For this thing is too much for you; you are not able to perform it by yourself.” Jethro, a godly man, saw past the surface to a deeper problem – the physical, mental, emotional, and even spiritual exhaustion of Moses.

Application: Do you ever stop to think about how much goes on every day to make this place possible? What is your part? Are you content to sit back and let other people wear themselves out? Do you ever wonder – “what can I do to lighten the load?” “How can I share the burden so they and they do not have to sit under the hot sun all day (proverbially speaking)?” Do you see past the surface to the deeper needs at Clearview?

III. WISE SOLUTION 

19 Listen now to my voice; I will give you counsel, and God will be with you: Stand before God for the people, so that you may bring the difficulties to God. 20 And you shall teach them the statutes and the laws, and show them the way in which they must walk and the work they must do. 21 Moreover you shall select from all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. By the way, becoming a leader at Clearview is not about control and power, it’s about humility and service. I remember in the early days of our church’s transition, I had a guy visit us a few times and his first question was how do I get on the board here. I wanted to say – “Since you asked that question, I’ll never tell you.”

22 And let them judge the people at all times. Then it will be that every great matter they shall bring to you, but every small matter they themselves shall judge. So it will be easier for you, for they will bear the burden with you. 23 If you do this thing, and God so commands you, then you will be able to endure, and all this people will also go to their place in peace.” What Jethro was doing was telling Moses to delegate, to divide the work. 24 So Moses heeded the voice of his father-in-law and did all that he had said.

What if Moses had refused to listen? It would have put him in an early grave. It would have caused problems in his marriage. It would have delayed justice for the people. It would have caused frustration among the masses. It would have destroyed the people.

Question: What could you be doing right now that could help lighten someone’s load? Are you a player in the greatest game on earth or are you just a bench warmer? On the last weekend of this month, August 27-28, we will be having our first annual ministry drive. Start praying right now about what is it that God is calling you to do.

Are you eligible to play? Have you ever given your life to Jesus? Until you do, you will have no motivation to play the game. You will have no desire to serve. You will have no desire to lighten the load of others. You will only be a spectator and that too a griping grumbling spectator

Hoi Polloi 15 – Reasons to Study the Bible

[/audioHoi Polloi

In this episode, Abidan Paul Shah will be discussing the reasons for studying the Bible. Many people don’t study the Bible or stay consistent in their bible study is because they don’t take the time to consider the marvelous benefits found in digging deep in God’s Word.

For more information on Digging Deep, Clearview Church’s summer Bible study, check out the Facebook page at facebook.com/ClearviewDiggingDeep. You can also find the notes from each week on Pastor Shah’s blog.

DIGGING DEEP 8 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 8 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Greeks (1500-165BC)

  • Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture.
  • Koine Greek

Romans

One constant factor during the writing of the New Testament was Rome. Roman history can be divided into three parts:

  1. ROMAN KINGDOM – early stages of Rome. (753 BC – 509 BC) Not very significant for our discussion
  2. ROMAN REPUBLIC – still an early stage of our discussion (509 BC – 44 BC)
  3. ROMAN EMPIRE – (44 BC – 6th century AD)

Rome had great admiration for Ancient Greece. Unlike Persia and Greek, Rome knew how to make people Romans. Persian Empire tried to absorb the conquered people but they still did not create unity. Greece tried but not everybody could be a citizen of Greece. But Rome knew how to truly absorb the surrounding cultures – both people and gods.

Some key aspects of the Roman Empire:

  1. The Emperor
  • In 48 BC Julius Caesar declared himself the Dictator. After he was assassinated, his adopted son, Octavius through a series of battles and events became the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Some of those battles might be familiar to you (Mark Anthony and Cleopatra).
  • In 27 BC the Senate gave him the title of Caesar Augustus and they became just an advisory council to the Emperor. His rule brought the PAX ROMANA. Rome’s first institutionalized police force and fire fighting force. He built roads throughout Italy.
  • The Imperial cult was typically instituted after the death of the emperor. Domitian (AD 81-96) was the first to institute it in his own lifetime. He demanded to be addressed as “dominus et deus” = “Lord and god. This was a major problem to the Christians. (See I Peter 3:12-17; and Revelation 2:13 – “Satan’s throne” in Pergamum)
  1. Provinces
  • Main administrative units; 2 kinds: Senatorial and imperial
  • Senatorial provinces were ruled by governors who were appointed by the Senate. They were no threat to peace. For e.g. Sicily, Spain, Pamphylia, Africa, Macedonia, Asia, Crete, Cyprus, etc.
  • Imperial provinces were also ruled by governors who were appointed by the emperor. They were on the borders of the empire and had a threat of revolt. For e.g. Syria, Gaul, Galatia, and Britain.
  1. Client Kingdoms
  • Not directly administered by Rome but still under Roman rule.
  • They were independent rulers who could appoint their own officials and implement their own policies.
  • Palestine was ruled by Herod from 40BC – 4 BC (Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Peraea, and Idumea)
  • After his death, his territory was divided into 3 parts: Judea, Idumea, and Samaria to Archelaus; North of Galilee to Philip; and Galilee and Peraea to Antipas.
  • Archelaus was removed after 10 years and Idumea and Samaria went under Roman procurators (Pilate, Felix, and Festus).
  • Later Herod Agrippa (Herod’s grandson) was a client king over North of Galilee, Galilee, Perea, and Judea. (Acts 12) His son Herod II (acts 25-26).
  1. Colonies and Free Cities
  • Self governing settlements of Roman Citizens
  • For e.g. Philippi and Corinth (locals who were granted Roman citizenship)
  1. Roman Citizenship
  • People could have dual citizenship like Paul (Tarsus and Rome).
  • It ensured loyalty.
  1. Roman Law
  • Basis of Roman Authority was Legal. It all depended on RIGHT and JURISDICTION. Magistrates had complete power. Measure of all things was the LAW. (Greek – man; East – king; Jewish people – God).
  • It was not perfect – THERE WAS CORRUPTION. The further from Rome, the more the corruption.
  • The power over life and death (ius gladii) was always retained by Governors.
  1. Roman Taxation
  • Poll tax was on every adult, including women and slaves.
  • An amount was set but the local governors could set their amount.
  1. Benefits
  • Pax Romana
  • Roads
  • Common Currency – Greek coins (lepta, drachmai,) and Roman coins (assaria, quadrans, denarius). Also temple currency was in shekels

Test Passages:

  1. Matthew 10:18; 11:8; 17:25; 18:23; 22:2; 25:40

 

  1. John 18:31

 

  1. Acts 16:19-40

 

  1. Galatians 3:28

 

  1. Acts 24:5

DIGGING DEEP 7 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 7 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Ancient Mesopotamia (2500-1100BC)

  1. Sumerian & Akkadian Eras:
  • Nimrod is known as the first ruler (Babel, Erech, Akkad, Calneh) – Genesis 10:10.
  • Sumerians in Southern Mesopotamia were the first literate civilization in the world. They wrote on cuneiform tablets.
  • Gilgamesh of Uruk is the most well known Sumerian king. He went to interview Utnapishtim, a survivor of the Flood.
  • Next, Akkadian (probably Northern Mesopotamia) rulers became dominant.
  • Founder of the first Mesopotamian kingdom was Sargon (The King is Legitimate).
  • He conquered as far as Anatolia (Turkey) and traded as far as modern day Bahrain, Southern Iran, and India.
  • The multilevel temple known as ziggurats were built.
  1. Amorite Dynasties:
  • Elamites sacked Ur and broke Sumerian control. (2000-1750BC)
  • Famous king Hammurabi (1792-1750BC) of Babylon gave law codes to his people.

 

Ancient Egypt (2500-1100BC)

  • Most of our information about the various Egyptian dynasties is coming from an Egyptian priest Manetho (3rd cent BC). Also from the Palermo Stone and Herodotus (5th cent BC).
  • It is complicated because Egyptian kings had 5 different names: Horus name, Nebty name, Golden Horus name, Prenomen, and Nomen.
  • In a 1992 article in the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, famous Egyptologist William A Ward wrote an article on Egyptian chronology. Listen to the summary—The current debate on Egyptian chronology is characterized by divergent opinions on the value of the Manethonian tradition, the lengths of reigns of individual Egyptian kings, the existence of coregencies, and the astronomical evidence. In each of these categories, there is little consensus and a wide range of possible solutions; a precise Egyptian chronology is therefore not possible.”
  • Here’s a proposed chronology:
  • Pre-Dynastic and Old Kingdom – (Genesis 10:6, Genesis 12, 13)
  • Middle Kingdom – (Genesis 37:28, Exodus 1:8; 5:1)
  • New Kingdom – (I Kings 11:15-20; 3:1; 10:1; etc…)
  • Third Intermediate and Late Periods (II Kings 19:9, Jeremiah 44:30)

 

Hebrews (1150-850BC)

  • United Monarchy (11-10 century BC) – Saul, David, Solomon
  • Divided Kingdoms (from 931BC) into Northern (Israel) and Southern (Judah)

 

Assyrians (900-612BC)

  • Shalmanesser III invaded Israel (Hosea 10:14-15)
  • Tiglath-Pileser (745-727) first Assyrian king to rule over Babylonia.
  • Ahaz of Judah appealed to him for help against the King of Damascus and King of Israel and he came (2 Kings 16:7-9)
  • Shalmanesser V besieged Samaria for 3 years (II Kings 17:3-6)
  • Sargon II (721-705) deported the 10 northern tribes according to Assyrian policy of deportation and relocation.
  • Assyria fell to the Chaldeans of Southern Mesopotamia.

 

Neo-Babylonians (625-539BC)

  • Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest and most well known king.
  • Captured the Southern Kingdom of Judah. In 587 BC, Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylon came and destroyed Jerusalem and destroyed the temple and destroyed the walls and drove the people of Judah out of their homes. He forced them to march 700 miles across the hot desert to a land they had never seen.
  • He later repented for his pride before God.

 

Medes and the Persians (850-331BC)

  • Captured Babylon in 539BC and issued the edict to let the Jewish people return (Ezra 1:1-4).
  • Esther queen of Xerxes (486-465BC)
  • Nehemiah returned under Araxerxes I to rebuild the walls. (444-445BC)

 

Greeks (1500-165BC)

  • Alexander the Great is prophesied of in Daniel 8:5-8.
  • The spread of Greek culture.

 

Test Passages:

  1. Jonah 3:1-3 & Genesis 10:9-11

 

  1. I Samuel 8:1-9

 

  1. 2 Kings 20:12-18; Isaiah 39:1-8

 

  1. Daniel 2

Anger Management Part Two

ANGER MANAGEMENT – 2 by Pastor Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson

anger2This morning we are in part 2 of our miniseries from the Sermon on the Mount called “ANGER MANAGEMENT.”

Matthew 5 21“You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be in danger of the judgment.’ 22 But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. And whoever says to his brother, “Raca!’ shall be in danger of the council. But whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of hell fire. 23 Therefore if you bring your gift to the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you, 24 leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.

Overall Background: Last weekend we set the foundation for understanding anger. Anger, we learned, is a divine emotion – When you study the Bible, it doesn’t take long to see that God gets angry more than anyone else. We also learned that anger is a derived emotion – When God’s Holiness and God’s Love meet, God’s Anger follows. It does 2 things: First, it sets out to destroy sin; and second, it brings us in line with His righteousness. We see that throughout the Old Testament. But God also knew that we are prone to sin and we cannot stand against His anger. Psalm 103:14 “For He knows our frame; He remembers that we are dust.” Hence, since the beginning of time God initiated a plan to pour His anger against sin on His own Son. Being fully God and without sin, only Jesus could take God’s wrath upon Himself. Isaiah 53 5 But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed. 6 …And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all. What was the result? Romans 5:9 “…having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.” Isn’t that amazing how God’s wrath poured upon Jesus has saved us from the terrible judgment to come?!! But it doesn’t end there. All that so far is negative. God’s anger also does something very positive for us – 2 Corinthians 5:21 “For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” God’s anger is not just some negative destructive force. When the dust settles from His wrath, there is something wonderful waiting for us. We now have the nature of Christ. Question: Have you trusted in Jesus as your Savior? If not, you’re still under God’s wrath. John 3:16 says it clearly.

Now for our message today – We are made in the image of God and just like Him we’ve been given certain emotions like love, joy, confidence, satisfaction, and even anger. Just like God, anger is given to deal with sin and bring God’s righteousness into this world. Unfortunately, just like other emotions, we have abused and misused it no end.

Question: How are you using anger in your life? Are you known as an angry person? Are you known as hot-tempered? Do you agree that you have a short fuse?

This morning we will understand the difference between right and wrong use of anger:

21“You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be in danger of the judgment.’ Jesus begins by quoting the sixth of the Ten Commandments. But then He raises the bar of righteousness in the next verse – 22 But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause.”

Background: Some of your translations might omit the phrase “without a cause.” Many Bibles have a little footnote or a comment in the margin that goes something like this – “‘without a cause’ does not exist in the earliest Greek manuscripts.” I’ve studied this subject for the past 17 years and it’s the focus of my PhD work. This is what I’ve found – even though a couple of early manuscripts do not have this word, it is found overwhelmingly in all the remaining manuscripts, almost all the early versions, and almost all the early church fathers/pastors preached on it. Unlike our English translation – “without a cause” = three words, the Greek is just one word – “ekei.” It’s very possible that it was accidentally omitted.

But even if that’s not the case, we know that all anger is not sin – Psalm 4:4 “Be angry, and do not sin.” And Paul says in Ephesians 4:26 “Be angry, and do not sin”: do not let the sun go down on your wrath…” Jesus Himself got angry several times so it doesn’t make sense for Him to denounce anger completely.

So what is Anger with a Cause? The Bible gives us several illustrations of this anger. There is Anger With a Cause–

  1. When people harden their hearts – You remember the account in Exodus where Pharaoh kept hardening his heart and refusing to let God’s people go. God told Moses that He was about to send the ultimate plague and the first born of man and beast will die. So Moses went before Pharaoh and begged him to let the Hebrews go. But as before his heart was hardened. So listen to Exodus 11:8 “Then he went out from Pharaoh in great anger.” Why was Moses so angry? Because Pharaoh was willing to destroy his own people, even his own firstborn son, for his foolish pride.

Here’s the point – it should anger us when people harden their hearts towards God. Please don’t misunderstand – I’m not suggesting that we should call people names and hurt them. That would be sin. This kind of anger seeks to prove God in the face of hardened hearts. Jesus demonstrated this in Mark 3:5 “And when He had looked around at them with anger, being grieved by the hardness of their hearts, He said to the man, ‘Stretch out your hand.’ And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored as whole as the other.”

  1. When leaders compromise the Gospel – God had given specific commands on how to perform the various sacrifices and offerings in the Old Testament. The priests had to eat the goat of the sin offering in the holy place. It was not just to burn on the altar. Why? Because all these offerings and sacrifices pointed to the Lamb of God. You cannot pick and choose Jesus. But listen to Leviticus 10 16 Then Moses made careful inquiry about the goat of the sin offering, and there it was—burned up. And he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron who were left, saying, 17 “Why have you not eaten the sin offering in a holy place, since it is most holy, and God has given it to you to bear the guilt of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the LORD?

Here’s the point – it should anger us when people compromise the gospel. When the simple gospel of trusting in the blood of Christ is compromised, we need to speak up. Paul talked about this to the Galatian church. They were being influenced by Judaizers who were compelling them to be circumcised. Listen to Paul in Galatians 2 11 Now when Peter had come to Antioch, I withstood him to his face, because he was to be blamed…” What did Peter do that was so wrong? 12 for before certain men came from James, he would eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 13 And the rest of the Jews also played the hypocrite with him, so that even Barnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 14 But when I saw that they were not straightforward about the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter before them all, “If you, being a Jew, live in the manner of Gentiles and not as the Jews, why do you compel Gentiles to live as Jews?…16 knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ… We don’t have to be hateful or mean-spirited but when the truth of the gospel of Jesus Christ is compromised, we are obligated to get angry and confront and clarify. Unfortunately, we fuss about side issues.

  1. When people act like they know better than God – You remember when God told the Israelites to only gather the Manna for the day but the people disobeyed God and decided to store some. God wanted them to trust Him for their daily bread but they disobeyed. So listen to Exodus 16:20 “…But some of them left part of it until morning, and it bred worms and stank. And Moses was angry with them. Why was Moses angry with them? Because they thought they did not trust God and wanted to do things their way.

Here’s the point – it should anger us when people think they know better than God. We find a similar example in Matthew 16 21 From that time Jesus began to show to His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised the third day. 22 Then Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, “Far be it from You, Lord; this shall not happen to You!” 23 But He turned and said to Peter, “Get behind Me, Satan! You are an offense to Me, for you are not mindful of the things of God, but the things of men.” I’m not suggesting we call each other the Devil but it should anger us when people act like they know better than God.

  1. When we see the innocent being mistreated – You remember the account when Saul became jealous of David and tried every opportunity to have him killed. Saul’s own son Jonathan helped David escape and even confronted his father for his behavior. One day there was a heated argument between the two and Saul called him all kinds of names and told him to go find David so he could kill him but Jonathan refused. Listen to 1 Samuel 20 32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, “Why should he be killed? What has he done?” 33 Then Saul cast a spear at him to kill him, by which Jonathan knew that it was determined by his father to kill David. 34 So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and ate no food the second day of the month, for he was grieved for David, because his father had treated him shamefully.

Here’s the point – It should anger us when we see the innocent being mistreated, no matter who or where they are. One reason Jesus cleansed the temple in anger is because the innocent multitude couldn’t even get to the temple to worship God in peace.

  1. When Christians give a bad testimony – In the book of Nehemiah we read how some Jewish people were taking advantage of each other to the point that they were even buying each other’s sons and daughters as slaves. Nehemiah 5 6 And I became very angry when I heard their outcry and these words. 7 After serious thought, I rebuked the nobles and rulers, and said to them, “Each of you is exacting usury from his brother.” So I called a great assembly against them. 8 And I said to them, “According to our ability we have redeemed our Jewish brethren who were sold to the nations. Now indeed, will you even sell your brethren? Or should they be sold to us?” Then they were silenced and found nothing to say.

Here’s the point – it should anger us when Christians give a bad testimony. We are a family redeemed by the blood of Christ. We should speak up when we hear someone destroying the family name. Paul got angry with the Corinthians because they were tolerating open sin and destroying their testimony. I Corinthians 4:21 What do you want? Shall I come to you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 5:1 It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among the Gentiles—that a man has his father’s wife! Paul is angry because in technicality they were destroying their testimony.

We can go on and on with more examples, here’s the point – There is a place for righteous anger or right use of anger. It motivates us to step out of our comfort zones and reach the world, to go where no one wants to go, to speak for those who do not have a voice, to stand firm for the gospel (by grace through faith in Jesus alone), and to live above approach. What gets you angry? Lack of sleep, selfishness, someone did not give you what you hoped, someone gave you what you did not want.

If you ask the Holy Spirit, He will help you live a life that is pleasing to God. He will enable you to be moved by the things that move God. He will give you patience for those things that do not matter. He will change your perspective on life.

Are you saved? That’s where it begins

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