Victory by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church

VICTORY by Dr. Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson, NC

Victory

Introduction: Words can have multiple meanings. Think about words like “bark” (on a tree or a dog’s bark) or Bolt (metal fastener or lightning bolt). Then, there are words that have derived from one or the other and they have different meanings: Express—Newspaper print but then extended to refer to the train that carried it. So also, Bureau—it was a special desk then it went to Bureau as an agency or a Bureaucrat. Last weekend, we began a 4-week series leading into the Easter season called “HOSANNA.” The word HOSANNA has more than one meaning. In our first message, we learned that it means “God Save Us.” But, there is another meaning that developed for Hosanna and that is “Victory.” In fact, that’s the title of our message today. Here’s the gist of the message: There is no victory without sacrifice. First the cross and then the crown. It’s the crucified life that is the victorious life. Please turn to Psalm 118, the psalm the crowd cheered when Jesus came into Jerusalem riding on a donkey.

Psalm 118     21 “I will praise You, For You have answered me, and have become my salvation. 22 The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. 23This was the LORD’S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes. 24 This is the day the LORD has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. 25 Save now, I pray, O LORD; O LORD, I pray, send now prosperity. 26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! we have blessed you from the house of the LORD.”

Question: Are you calling on God to save you through some trial? Do you understand that you may have to endure before you can be victorious? Are you carrying your cross daily? Have you come to the cross to be saved?

Context: Next weekend is Palm Sunday. If you grew up in church, you know that it’s the Sunday before Easter when Jesus came into Jerusalem riding on a donkey and began what we know as the Passion Week. We’ll look at all that in detail next weekend. Today our focus is on the cheers of the crowd when they saw Jesus riding on the donkey. All the gospel writers record their cheer but for time’s sake, listen to just Matthew 21:9 “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!’ Hosanna in the highest!” Where did the crowd come up with that cheer? They were chanting from Psalm 118. The question is—Why did they pick this psalm?

To start with, you may not know it but Psalm 118 is the most quoted psalm and maybe even the most quoted and alluded to Old Testament chapter in the New Testament. We have no superscription on why it was written but we do have information on how it was used through the centuries. Basically, 2 major reasons and they are connected. First, according to the Talmud (Jewish writings), Psalm 118 was sung at the Feast of the Tabernacles. Second, it became a Messianic psalm. Let’s look at both these uses closely:

First, this psalm was sung at the Autumn Festival of the Jewish people known as the Feast of the Tabernacles/Booths. Keep in mind that the Jewish people had many feasts but only 3 of them were the pilgrimage feasts (one had to go to Jerusalem to keep it): Feast of the Passover/Unleavened Bread, Feast of the Weeks/Pentecost/First Fruits, and the Feast of the Tabernacles/Booths/Sukkot. This last one was a seven-day feast starting on the 15th day to the 21st day of the seventh month (our September-October). According to God’s command to his people in Leviticus 23, they were to make simple tents out of leaves and branches, and live in them for 7 days. This was to remind them of their time in the wilderness when they lived in booths and made their way through the dangerous desert. It was not a safe or comfortable time but God had protected them from the constant threats of natural hazards, wild animals, and enemy tribes from every side and He had brought them safely to the land that he had promised them. In other words, God had been faithful to them, and he wanted every generation to remember that each year and be grateful. Not only that but it was also a time to give thanks for the harvest.

Principle: In some ways, God is making us live in booths these days. All our security and comforts have been stripped away. Could it be that God wants us to give him thanks for where he has brought us from as a nation and as individuals?

Now, where would Psalm 118 fit in all of this? This was the psalm they would sing at the feast of the Tabernacles. They would start singing it outside the gates of the temple. Listen to the opening lines of the psalm: 1 Oh, give thanks to the LORD, for He is good! For His mercy endures forever. 2 Let Israel now say, “His mercy endures forever.” 3 Let the house of Aaron now say, “His mercy endures forever.” 4 Let those who fear the LORD now say, “His mercy endures forever.” 5 I called on the LORD in distress; The LORD answered me and set me in a broad place. 6 The LORD is on my side; I will not fear. What can man do to me? God understands our fears but he rejects our doubts. 14 The LORD is my strength and song, and He has become my salvation. 15 The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tents of the righteous; The right hand of the LORD does valiantly…17 I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of the LORD. God’s people need to claim this promise in these days. 18 The LORD has chastened me severely, but He has not given me over to death. Now looking towards the Eastern Gate of the temple they would say—19 Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will go through them, and I will praise the LORD. These gates were the Eastern Gate of the temple because they were a double gate with two sections. By the way, according to Ezekiel 44 and 46, the prince has a special access to this east gate. Now they would march into the temple singing the psalm—20 This is the gate of the LORD, through which the righteous shall enter. 21 I will praise You, for You have answered me, and have become my salvation. Then, seeing the temple before them, they would say—22“The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. 23 This was the LORD’S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes. 24 This is the day the LORD has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it.” So much is packed in here that we don’t have time to get into. This was a reference to King David being rejected as the shepherd boy typifying the rejection of the Messiah one day in the future.

Now comes the verse that the crowd used in cheering Jesus as he entered Jerusalem from the Eastern Gate. 25 Save now (Hosanna), I pray, O LORD; O LORD, I pray, send now prosperity. 26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.” What were they waving in their hands? Palm branches. On the last day of the Feast of the Tabernacles, the seventh day, also known as Hoshana Rabba (Day of the Great Hosanna), the priests blew the trumpets and the Levites and the people waved the lulavs (palm branches).

Question: What Feast was coming up that week? Not the feast of the Tabernacles or Booths but the Feast of the Passover/Unleavened Bread. The Feast of the Tabernacles was still 6 months away! Why in the world were the people cheering Psalm 118 and waving palm branches when it was not time for the Feast of the Tabernacles? By the time of Jesus, shouting Hosanna and waving palm branches had become symbolic of the coming of the Messiah. The crowd had decided that Jesus fit the bill of the Messiah. Their Messiah was going to free them from the Romans. When they were shouting “Hosanna,” they didn’t mean “Save us.” They meant “Victory” over the Romans and maybe even the corrupt priesthood and temple leaders. How do we know they didn’t understand? Matthew 21    10 And when He had come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, “Who is this?” 11 So the multitudes said, “This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee.” The crowd should have read the rest of Psalm 118. Listen to verse 27 “God is the LORD, and He has given us light; Bind the sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar.” Jesus still had to give his life as a sacrifice for our sins.

Please listen carefully: There is no crown without the cross. There is no victory without sacrifice. If we lose sight of the cross, it’s nothing but self-will and human effort. It’s his sacrifice on the cross that gives me the power and the courage to live. The Cross gives me the victory. Amazingly, Jesus did not condemn the crowd. He accepted their praise and even defended them against the temple authorities but he did not commit himself to them. They were not ready for him. They had to first receive him as the Passover Lamb. Once they did that, then they could celebrate victory with him.

How are we going to get through these tough days? Keep your eyes on the cross. First it saves us and then it gives us the victory to live in this life.

Colossians 2    14 having wiped out the handwriting of requirements that was against us, which was contrary to us. And He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross. 15Having disarmed principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it.

How about the empty tomb? The tomb will give you power to live but the cross gives you the perspective to live. First the cross and then the tomb.

Next, pick up your cross and follow Christ.

Mark 8    34 When He had called the people to Himself, with His disciples also, He said to them, “Whoever desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. 35 For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel’s will save it.”

Invitation: Are you just the crowd? Do you understand that the cross gives us the victory to face whatever comes our way? Do you know Jesus as your Savior and King? Are you trusting him through this crisis? What will people say about you when all this is over? Are you giving the cross to those around you?

Royal – Our Humble King by Pastor Shah

OUR HUMBLE KING by Pastor Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson

Our Humble KingIntroduction: Any Jungle Book fans here? Who was King Louie? He was the self-proclaimed king of all the monkeys in Jungle Book. What was his greatest wish? He wanted to be a man and stroll right into town. What did he need to make that happen? He needed the secret to man’s red fire. Did he ever get it? No. King Louie was trying to climb up the ladder of power and status but he couldn’t. So also, the kings of the earth have always tried to climb up the ladder of power and status. To the contrary, the king of the universe, King Jesus, did not have to climb up. He was already up in power and status. Instead, he climbed down the ladder of power and status. In fact, when he came, he did not come riding a steed, a war horse, but a donkey, the common man’s beast of burden. In other words, King Jesus did not come to subdue but to serve. He did not come to terrify but to bring joy. He is truly “Our Humble King.”

Zechariah 9      9“Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He isjust and having salvation, Lowly and riding on a donkey, A colt, the foal of a donkey. 10I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem; The battle bow shall be cut off. He shall speak peace to the nations; His dominionshall be“from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.’ 11“As for you also, Because of the blood of your covenant, I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit.”

Question: The first time King Jesus came, he came in humility to win us over. The second time when he comes, he will come to execute judgment. Have you received him the first time? If you claim to know him, are you humble like your king?

Context: We’re in our Christmas series called “ROYAL.” As I mentioned in our previous two messages, it’s hard for us to appreciate the regal language the Bible ascribes to Jesus because we grew up in a democracy or a republic where people elect their leaders. Kings are not elected by the people. They rule by virtue of family origin, land ownership, or military power. Don’t confuse the British royalty with typical kings in history. The British monarchy is a constitutional monarchy where the King or Queen is a symbol of unity, stability, and pride but the ability to make and pass laws is in the hands of the elected Parliament. Jesus is not a figurehead. He is truly the all-powerful and in-control King of Kings but he is a humble king. What does that mean? 3 things:

I. HUMILITY IS NOT WEAKNESS

Background:I’m sure you’ve heard the statement – “Meekness is not Weakness.” Unfortunately, it’s become a cliché but it’s really true, especially in the verses leading up to Zechariah 9:9. They are words of judgment on the nations that had rebelled against God and had threatened God’s people. They are back in the land from exile for about 20 years but things are far from peaceful. Their neighbors don’t want them back or rebuild their temple. Listen to Zechariah 9      1The burden of the word of the LORD against the land of Hadrach, (This was a city to the south of Aleppo and north of Damascus. It was against God’s people.) and Damascus (Capital of Syria today. It too was against God’s people) its resting place (For the eyes of men and all the tribes of Israel are on the LORD); (Here is a prophecy that one day in the end of times, Israel and her lost tribes, along with her godless neighbors will look to God)2Also againstHamath, whichborders on it, (City in Syria, north of Lebanon. It was part of the Promised Land and one day it will be again.)and againstTyre and Sidon, (Tyre is in Lebanon today and Sidon is to the north of Tyre. Tyre was very proud over its strength.)though they are very wise. 3For Tyre built herself a tower, heaped up silver like the dust, and gold like the mire of the streets. 4Behold, the LORD will cast her out; he will destroy her power in the sea, and she will be devoured by fire. (150 years later, Alexander the Great fulfilled this prophecy) 5Ashkelon shall seeitand fear; Gaza also shall be very sorrowful; and Ekron, for He dried up her expectation. (Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and Ashdod were four of the five capital cities of the Philistines.)The king shall perish from Gaza, and Ashkelon shall not be inhabited. (Again, Alexander the Great fulfilled this prophecy when he destroyed Gaza and dragged King Batis of Gaza behind a chariot through the city until he died.) 6“A mixed race shall settle in Ashdod, and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines. (No one of the Philistines were left and foreigners had to settle these cities to this day.)

What is the point of all this? When we read the history of the world, we think that it’s just the strong conquering the weak or the wise overpowering the foolish. We falsely think that it is Darwin’s “survival of the fittest.” This is not true. There is an unseen hand that is guiding the rise and fall of kings and kingdoms. Listen to Daniel’s prayer to God in Daniel 2    20“. . . Blessed be the name of God forever and ever, for wisdom and might are His. 21And He changes the times and the seasons; He removes kings and raises up kings; He gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding.” Jesus is controlling history. Zechariah 9 is just a glimpse of that fact.

Application:How do you see Jesus? Is he the helpless baby in the manger? Is he the helpless Son of God nailed to the cross? Is he the one standing outside the door and knocking, waiting for you to open the door? Is he the one in charge of everything?

II. HUMILITY IS MERCIFUL

Background: Just when we think that King Jesus will mercilessly decimate all his enemies and the enemies of his people, listen to Zechariah 9     7“I will take away the blood from his mouth, and the abominations from between his teeth. . .” Blood from his mouth is referring to the pagan sacrifices that involved drinking blood and abominations from between his teeth is referring to eating forbidden food. That statement is a description of paganism.What is God saying? Even in the midst of his judgment there is mercy. Somehow God will save individuals even while he is judging peoples and nations. Keep reading 7“. . . But he who remains, even he shall befor our God, and shall be like a leader in Judah, and Ekron like a Jebusite.(Just like David had spared the Jebusites and they became part of the people of Judah, so also God would spare these enemies of God’s people and they would become part of God’s people.) Did this ever happen? Acts 8    26Now an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, “Arise and go toward the south along the road which goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza.” This is desert. 27So he arose and went. And behold, a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace the queen of the Ethiopians, who had charge of all her treasury, and had come to Jerusalem to worship, 28was returning. And sitting in his chariot, he was reading Isaiah the prophet  . . .”  You know the rest. Philip explained the gospel to him, baptized him, and then listen to Acts 8    39“Now when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip away, so that the eunuch saw him no more; and he went on his way rejoicing. 40But Philip was found at Azotus. And passing through, he preached in all the cities till he came to Caesarea.” Azotus is the Roman name for Ashdod.

8I will camp around My house because of the army, because of him who passes by and him who returns. No more shall an oppressor pass through them, for now I have seen with My eyes.”What is God saying? In the days ahead, he will save all people, Jews and Gentiles through Jesus Christ

Application:How do you understand humility? True humility is merciful. When you are totally justified in finishing someone, you still show mercy. It is “Power under Control.”

III. HUMILITY IS JESUS

Zechariah 9      9“Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem!

Background:On one hand, King Jesus was working his purposes in the world. On the other hand, he was bringing salvation to his people. While he allowed and even directed earthly kings to carry out his purposes, he was about to fulfil the prophecies regarding the eternal king.3 things we find fulfilled:

  1. He is Righteous:

“Behold, your King is coming to you; He isjust. . .”

Promise to David – 2 Samuel 7:12“When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. Isaiah 11     1There shall come forth a Rod from the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots. . . 5Righteousness shall be the belt of His loins, and faithfulness the belt of His waist.

  1. He will bring salvation

and having salvation,

1 Pet. 3:18  For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit,

  1. Humble

Lowly – Same word used to describe Moses inNumbers 12:3. He is approachable.

  1. Riding a donkey

and riding on a donkey, A colt, the foal of a donkey.

Genesis 49    10The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall bethe obedience of the people. 11 Binding his donkey to the vine, And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine, He washed his garments in wine, And his clothes in the blood of grapes.

Horse was an animal of war but a donkey was not.

10I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem; The battle bow shall be cut off. He shall speak peace to the nations; His dominionshall be“from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.’ 11“As for you also, Because of the blood of your covenant, I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit.”

In other words, Christ was coming to bring peace. He brought peace in our hearts now and then peace in our world one day.

Episode 18: The Authorship of Hebrews (ft. Dr David Alan Black)

Episode 18: The Authorship of Hebrews (ft. Dr David Alan Black)

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In this episode, Abidan Paul Shah will be talking with Dr. David Alan Black about his book on the Authorship of Hebrews. This is a subject that has divided scholars for many years.

If you have any questions or topics you would like to be discussed, please tweet them to @hoipolloiradio.

God’s Unfailing Word by Pastor Abidan Shah

THE UNFAILING WORD OF GOD by Pastor Shah, Clearview Church, Henderson

God's Unfailing Word

Introduction:  As many of you know, Nicole and I, and the kids were in India for the past two weeks visiting my parents. Some of you may remember that last November I got a call from my sister that my dad had slipped and broken his ankle. It was a very very tough time in my dad and mom’s life. We were hoping to go much earlier to visit them but that would’ve added more burden on them in having to take care of 6 more people in the house. So we IMG_0535went now. It was a wonderful trip especially for the kids since they got to really get to know their grandparents. Several times during our visit my dad said to me “It’s a miracle that I’m still walking today. God has been more than faithful to me. He has more than kept his promises to me.” That really touched me. So, when he asked me to preach last Sunday, the Holy Spirit laid on my heart to preach on “The Unfailing Word of God.” Many of y’all saw that message on Periscope and Facebook. I’m preaching the same message today but with some new additions.

I Peter 1   23 having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever, 24 because “All flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, and its flower falls away, 25 but the word of the Lord endures forever.” Now this is the word which by the gospel was preached to you.”

Question:  What are you basing your life on? Emotions, experience, human wisdom. Or are you basing your life on the word of God which lives and abides forever. Have you found yourself drifting and doubting lately? Have you found yourself floundering and fearful lately? Have you found yourself struggling and staggering lately? Have you taken your eyes away from the truth of God as revealed in the Word of God? Are you saved? Are you saved under the gospel given in the Word of God?

Context: The passage we just read comes from the first letter by Peter, the chief disciple of Jesus, to the various churches of Asia Minor, modern day Turkey. The churches there were going through some difficult times. They were being grieved by various trials. They were getting ready to go through some more fiery trial. They were suffering for righteousness’ sake. Peter wrote this letter to encourage them. He wrote to tell them not to get discouraged. He reminded them that this was simply a test of the genuineness of their faith. He told them to rejoice because they were sharing in the sufferings of Christ. He commanded them to cast all their cares upon God because he cared for them.

Application: All of us go through difficult times. All of us are time-to-time grieved by various trials. Maybe you are going through one right now. Maybe you have just come through one. Or, maybe you are getting ready to go through one. God’s Word to you is “Don’t get discouraged. He is still with you. He will never leave you nor forsake you. He will work all things together for good for you.” You may not understand “Why things happen” but you will never have to wonder, “Where God is.” He is with you working all things together for good.

There’s so much Peter has said in this letter about suffering, love, obedience, and prayer, I don’t have time to talk about all those things. I encourage you to read this book at home. It will be a great blessing to you, especially if you are going through a difficult time. I just want to focus on the passage we just read. Listen again to verse 23 “having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God…” In helping these Christians going through some fiery trials, Peter reminded them of how they came to God. He says, “they were born again through the Word of God.” What does it mean? It means “God’s Word saves us.” This sounds very strange at first. How can the Word of God regenerate us? We think it’s only God who regenerates us. We think it’s only Christ or the Holy Spirit who regenerates us. But here it says that it is the word of God that regenerates us. This may be strange to us but it was not strange to the early church. Listen to James 1:18 “Of His own will He brought us forth by the word of truth…” So also, Paul says in Ephesians 5:26 that Christ will sanctify and cleanse his church “with the washing of water by the word.” Then listen to what Jesus himself said to his disciples in John 15:3 “You are already clean because of the word which I have spoken to you.” Those verses prove to us that what Peter said in his letter was not unusual or strange. It was perfectly in line with the rest of Scripture. The question is – “How does the Word save us?” We can look at creation and know that there is a God. We can look at the vast heavens and the deep seas and know that he is infinitely powerful. We can look at the many different kinds of creatures and know that he is creative. We can look at the human mind and know that he is infinitely wise. We can look at the beautiful sunset and know that he loves beauty. But nothing tells us that God is holy and we are sinful and Jesus is the Savior who came to give his life for us. It’s only in the pages of God’s Word that we find God’s answer to humankind’s deepest needs – Sin, Sorrow, and Death. If you look anywhere else, it will not be the true gospel. If you look anywhere else, you will be deceived.

Application: What does the word of God tell us about getting saved? Acts 16:31 So they said, “Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household.” Romans 10:9 “that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.” Ephesians 2   8 “For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, 9 not of works, lest anyone should boast.” I can go on and on. Have you received the gospel as given in the word of God? This is the same gospel across the world.

But there’s something else Peter says at this point. Listen again to verse 23 “having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever.” In helping these believers who were facing fiery trials, Peter reminded them that this Word not only saves them but it will never fail them. He says that it “lives and abides forever.” What does it mean? God’s Word never fails. In this life, many things will fail. People will fail. Health will fail. Technology will fail. Automobiles will fail. Government will fail. But one thing we can be sure of – God’s Word will never fail. Peter quoted Isaiah 40 where God comforted his people Israel that he would not abandon them. Listen to what he said in verse 24 because “All flesh is as grass, And all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, And its flower falls away, 25 But the word of the Lord endures forever.” Now this is the word which by the gospel was preached to you.” I took my kids around my dad’s garden when we came. 2017-11-13 15.28.10They asked me if it still looked the same from when I was little. I told them that it’s still the same place but a lot had changed. I pointed to the various flowerpots and told them that I remembered them but not the plants inside of them. Those plants had all long gone away. In the same way, all of us are like grass. Then there are few among us who rise to the top as the flowers among the grass. One day both us and the flowers among us will be gone. Only thing that will remain will be God’s Word. Does that mean the copy of the Bible? Maybe. I believe it means what God has promised in the Bible will happen without fail. I don’t have the time to mention all the promises of God in the Bible but here are just a few–

  • God has promised in Psalm 50:15 “Call upon Me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you.” His word will not fail.
  • God has promised in Isaiah 40:31 “those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength.” His word will not fail.
  • God has promised in Romans 8:28 “And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God.” His word will not fail.
  • God has promised in Philippians 4:19 “my God shall supply all your need according to His riches in glory by Christ Jesus.” His word will not fail.
  • God has promised in I John 1:9 “If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.”
  • Jesus has promised in Matthew 24:35 “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.”

The French Skeptic Voltaire said that within a 100 years Christianity would be a thing of the past and the Bible would be in a museum. More than 100 years have gone by and its Voltaire who has become a thing of the past but the Word of God still abides forever. In fact, for almost 100 years after he died, his home was used to keep bibles and sell bibles.

Personal testimony – In my own life God has been more than faithful. Not a single of his promises have failed. Things haven’t always happened the way I wanted them to or when I wanted them to but better things have happened in God’s timing!

Application: How important is this book to you? Do you daily feed upon God’s Word? There was a Chinese evangelist who would often say – “No Bible, No Breakfast.” Is that true in your life?

DIGGING DEEP 4 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 4 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah 

Recap from last week:

  • Know the difference between Form and Meaning (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions). “Form” includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc and “meaning” includes concepts or thoughts from the forms
  • “For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Criteria for Adjustment in Bible Translation (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  1. Required by the grammar of the target language
  • In Hebrew the standard word order is Verb-Subject-Object-Modifier.

וַתָּ֣קָם חַנָּ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֛י אָכְלָ֥ה בְשִׁלֹ֖ה וְאַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁתֹ֑ה

(Arose – Hannah – after – eating – in Shiloh – and after – drinking – I Samuel 1:9)

  • In English the standard word order is Subject-Verb-Object-Modifier.

“So Hannah arose after they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh.”

  • Matthew 1:6 Ἰεσσαὶ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Δαυὶδ τὸν βασιλέα. Δαυὶδ δὲ ⸆ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου,

Actual Translation – “and Jesse begot the David the king. David the king begot the Solomon by the of the Uriah.”

“Wife” has to be added and “the” has to be omitted twice.

  1. Required to ensure correct meaning
  • Romans 6   1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ⸀ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; 2 μὴ γένοιτο….
  • Actual translation – Romans 6   1 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? 2 May it not become… (Let it not become)
  • Check KJV, NKJV, NIV
  1. Required to ensure clarity
  • The translators added, “who had been” in Matthew 1:6 to make sure that Bathsheba was not married to Uriah at the time Solomon was born.
  • Check NASB, KJV, NKJV, NIV
  • Ephesians 1:13
  1. Required to ensure naturalness
  • “Bathsheba” added by NASB
  • “And” omitted by NASB
  • “Begat” should be replaced with much better contemporary word… (“Fathered” implies that David didn’t really have a relationship with Solomon)

DIGGING DEEP 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 3 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • 2 Major views of Translation: Formal Equivalent (literal/word-for-word); Functional Equivalent (idiomatic/meaning-based/dynamic)
  • Range of translation: Highly Literal, Modified Literal, Idiomatic, and Unduly Free
  • No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Difference between FORM and MEANING (From Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions):

  • FORM includes letters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc.
  • MEANING includes concepts or thoughts from the forms

“For genuine translation to take place, 2 things must happen: The meaning must remain the same, and the form must change (at least to some degree). If either of these two things does not happen, we have not translated.” (Brunn)

How to translate words?

  • “Words” are important. They are the building block of any language, the starting point of form.
  • “Full meaning of most words does not transfer directly between two languages. Meaning should be viewed as an area and not a precise point.” (Brunn)
  • Usually, there is only a partial overlap of meanings between corresponding words between two languages.
  • A Greek word has a range of meanings and the most appropriate has to be picked in translation.
  • Many times translations are not as accurate or consistent as they should’ve been.

Case in point: Logos (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions)

  1. Logos has more meanings than just “word”

John 1:1 (NKJV) “In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and the logos was God.”

Acts 1:1 (NKJV) “The former logos I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach.”

Romans 14:12 (NKJV) “So then each of us shall give logos of himself to God.”

1 Corinthians 1:18 (NKJV) “For the logos of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:1 (NKJV) “And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of logos or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God.”

1 Corinthians 2:4 (NKJV) “And my logos and my preaching were not with persuasive logos of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.”

Ephesians 4:29 (NKJV) “Let no corrupt logos proceed out of your mouth…”

1 Timothy 1:15 (NKJV) “This is a faithful logos and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.”

1 Peter 3:15 (NKJV) “…always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a logos for the hope that is in you…”

Acts 20:24 (NKJV) “But of no logos; nor do I count my life dear to myself…”

Matthew 5:32 (NKJV) “But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for the logos of sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery…”

  1. Logos is more than just a “single” word

Galatians 5:14 (NKJV) For all the law is fulfilled in one logos, even in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Check the interesting rendering here by NASB)

John 19:7-8 (NKJV) The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God.” Therefore, when Pilate heard that logos, he was the more afraid.”

  1. Guidelines for best translation of logos:
  • Literal translations use “word” most of the time for logos since it is the one that corresponds the most.
  • Idiomatic translations use the meaning that fits the context the most.

How about Revelation 22   18   For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; 19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

– Check Matthew 25:19; I Corinthians 15:2; Philippians 4:15; and Hebrews 4:13 (Logos is missing in the KJV translation because the translators were going for meaning rather than form.)

DIGGING DEEP 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 2 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Recap from last week:

  • Translations are still the Word of God. They’re also inspired and inerrant to the extent that they represent the original text.
  • Understand the difference between Wahy and Ilham (direct revelation vs. inspiration of the Holy Spirit)
  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation or word-for-word translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Taken from Dave Brunn’s book One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?) I lean more towards the literal side of things.

How Translation Works:

 

2 Major Views of Translation:

  1. Formal Equivalent: It is also known as “literal” or “word-for-word” translation. It tries to preserve the form in the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek writing. This is with regards to both word and grammar.
  2. Functional Equivalent: It is also known as “idiomatic” or “meaning-based” translation. Some have even called it dynamic. It tries to focus on the meaning, naturalness, and clarity.

The matter is more complicated than that. The following is a better Range of Translation, as taken from John Beekman and John Callow’s book, Translating the Word of God.)

 

A.  Highly Literal – The focus is on both words and word orders. For e.g. Interlinears.

Joshua 1:9 “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”

Actual – Joshua 1:9 (BHS) הֲלֹ֤וא צִוִּיתִ֨יךָ֙ חֲזַ֣ק וֶאֱמָ֔ץ אַֽל־תַּעֲרֹ֖ץ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּ֤י עִמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃ פ

Literal Translation – ?·not I-instructed·you be-steadfast-you ! and·be-resolute-you ! must-not-be you-are-being-terrified and·must-not-be you-are-being-dismayed that with·you Yahweh· Elohim-of·you in·all which you-are-going

John 1:12 “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name.”

Actual – ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,

Literal Translation – as many as   but received him   he gives   to them   right   children   of God   to be becoming   to the   ones believing   into the   name of   him.

B.  Modified Literal Translation – It focuses on words and is willing to modify the word order to make sense. For e.g. NKJV, NASB, ESV

C.  Idiomatic Translation – It focuses much more on sounding natural and clear. For e.g. NLT, God’s Word, etc.

Joshua 1:9 “This is my command—be strong and courageous! Do not be afraid or discouraged. For the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.”

John 1:12 “But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.”

D.  Unduly Free – It changes the wording and word order, historical setting, and original context to suit the present audience. For e.g. Cotton Patch Version

Important point to remember: No translation is strictly one or the other (except maybe the Unduly Free). They frequently overlap, some more than others.

Example: Job 19:27

Hebrew – “which I I-shall-perceive for·me and·eyes-of·me they-see and·not alien-one they-are-exhausted kidneys-of·me in·bosom-of·me.”

NKJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, And my eyes shall behold, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!”

ESV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!

NIV – “I will see Him myself; my eyes will look at Him, and not as a stranger. My heart longs within me.

NLT – “I will see him for myself. Yes, I will see him with my own eyes. I am overwhelmed at the thought!

MESSAGE – “see God myself, with my very own eyes. Oh, how I long for that day!

KJV – “Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

DIGGING DEEP 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

DIGGING DEEP – 1 (Bible Translations) by Abidan Paul Shah

Total number of all the Bible translations in the world: Not Sure.

Old Testament: Samaritan Pentateuch, Aramaic Targums, and the Septuagint.

New Testament: Syriac, Coptic, Latin, Ethiopic, Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Arabic, Slavonic, English, etc.

Total number of English Bible translations: According to one estimation, there are 900 and another as many as 1400. This includes translations as well as paraphrases, revisions, and partial translations.

Original Languages of the Bible: 98.5% of the OT was written in Hebrew. Parts of the OT were in Aramaic: Genesis 31:47; Jeremiah 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; and Daniel 2:4b-7:28. Also, Jesus more than likely spoke Aramaic based on evidence of inscriptions, Aramaic words in the Gospels, Aramaic papyri evidence, etc. But, the New Testament was written in Koine Greek.

Translations are still the Word of God – translations are also inspired and inerrant to the extent they represent the original text. We believe that the original words are not isolated entities. They come together to make propositions. Hence, as long as the translations are true to the original text, they are just as much the Word of God as the original text.

Difference between the translations of the Quran and the translations of the Bible: In Islam, only the Arabic Quran is considered to be authoritative. This is the language in which it was given and the translations involve interpretation, which can be distorted. School kids are told to memorize the Quran in Arabic even in countries where Arabic is not the main language. Recitation of the Quran has to be in Arabic. Why is this? In Muslim theology there are 2 key words that are important to understand: wahy and ilham. Wahy is the pure revelation of God. It exists in heaven and everything else, including translations, is just interpretation or rendition. Ilham is God revealing his knowledge into the mind of the person. This is similar to the Biblical doctrine of inspiration. Under wahy, there is no such thing as the “original message” or “context” or the “true words” of the prophet Mohammed; the Quran is the word of God.

A good example to explain the difference between the Quran translations and the Bible translations: From Rodney Decker, “Verbal-Plenary Inspiration and Translation” – The International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sévres, Paris, has the official International Prototype Kilogram. It is the standard against which all kilogram measures are established. But, my weight measures are still accurate.

2 Timothy 3   16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

Major points to remember:

  • There is no perfect or ultimate English Bible translation.
  • There is no such thing as a word-for-word translation.
  • There is no such thing as consistent formal equivalent translation.
  • The best translation is the “modified literal.” “Modified” represents the real situation and “literal” represents the ideal goal. (Dave Brunn) In other words, “modified” acknowledges that the translators have to modify in order to reflect the best meaning. Literal is the goal of the translation.
  • Translations carry the same authority as the original text, to the extent that they reflect the original text.
  • Translations have to be constantly updated.

Couple of examples:

(Taken from Dave Brunn’s book – “One Bible, Many Versions: Are All Translations Created Equal?”)

Jeremiah 48:4  בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוֹן׃  = sons of roar, crash, noise

 NKJV – “Those who fled stood under the shadow of Heshbon because of exhaustion. But a fire shall come out of Heshbon, a flame from the midst of Sihon, and shall devour the brow of Moab, the crown of the head of the sons of tumult.”

HCSB – “Those who flee will stand exhausted in Heshbon’s shadow because fire has come out from Heshbon and a flame from within Sihon. It will devour Moab’s forehead and the skull of the noisemakers.

NIV – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand helpless, for a fire has gone out from Heshbon, a blaze from the midst of Sihon; it burns the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of the noisy boasters.”

NASB – “In the shadow of Heshbon the fugitives stand without strength; For a fire has gone forth from Heshbon and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and it has devoured the forehead of Moab and the scalps of the riotous revelers.”

 

Romans 3:20 σὰρξ = Flesh, physical body; human nature, earthly descent, human being, person, man, earthly life, etc. 

NKJV – Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

ESV For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since zthrough the law comes knowledge of sin.

HCSB For no one will be justified in His sight by the works of the law, because the knowledge of sin comes through the law.

NLT For no one can ever be made right with God by doing what the law commands. The law simply shows us how sinful we are.

MessageOur involvement with God’s revelation doesn’t put us right with God. What it does is force us to face our complicity in everyone else’s sin.

NETFor no one is declared righteous before him23 by the works of the law,24 for through the law comes25 the knowledge of sin.

NIV Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.

NASBbecause by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

DIGGING DEEP 13 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 13 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Tying it all together:

  1. Understand the Incarnational Model of Scripture: Just as Jesus was both divine and human but without sin, so also Scripture is both divine and human and yet without errors.

Hermeneutical Triangle

Literature:

  1. Understand where we are in the History of Biblical Interpretation: Early Jewish Interpretation Sadducees (Literal), Essenes and Qumran Community (Pesher = prophecy), Diaspora (Allegory), and Pharisaic or Rabbinic exegesis, especially Midrash.

 

  1. Understand how the New Testament used the Old Testament: Single Meaning, Unified Referents; Single Meaning, Multiple Contexts and Referents; and Fuller Meaning, Single Goal.

 

  1. Understand the 7 kinds of genre in the Bible: Narrative, Poetry, Wisdom, Prophecy, Parable, Epistle, and Apocalyptic.

 

  1. Understand how language works at a particular stage: Recognize language families for Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek; Break language down into word, sentence, and paragraph.

 

History:

  1. Understand the land of the Bible: between the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea on the West and the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf in the East and between the Amanus and Ararat Mountains in the North and the Nafud Desert and the southern tip of Sinai in the South. The New Testament expanded the region into what today are Turkey, Greece, Italy, and Spain.

 

  1. Understand the political background of the Old Testament: Ancient Mesopotamia (2500-1100BC) – Sumerian & Akkadian Eras and Amorite Dynasties; Ancient Egypt (2500-1100BC); Hebrews (1150-850BC); Assyrians (900-612BC); Neo-Babylonians (625-539BC); Medes and the Persians (850-331BC); Greeks (1500-165BC).

 

  1. Understand the political background of the New Testament: Roman Empire – The Emperor, the Provinces, Client Kingdoms, Colonies and Free Cities, Roman Citizenship, Roman Law, Roman Taxation, Benefits.

 

  1. Understand the religious background of the Bible: Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, and Greco-Roman; Religion can come in many forms – animism (animals, plants, and inanimate objects have spiritual essence), henotheism (worshipping one but acknowledging others), polytheism (many gods), and monotheism (one god).

 

Theology:

  1. Understand the Biblical Theology of the Old Testament: It adds the necessary depth to the study and interpretation of each passage in its context. Based on where a person is studying in the OT, the key/center will help in shedding light on the text in a whole new way. It will open the understanding of the text in its proper larger context of God’s promise-plan (Walter Kaiser)

 

  1. Understand the Biblical Theology of the New Testament: It keeps us from focusing on smaller and smaller parts of the Bible and helps us to get the bigger picture. Again, the key is the promise-plan of God (Walter Kaiser). It also helps to make sense of the Unity and the Diversity of the New Testament and the relationship between the Old and the New Testament.

 

Application:

  1. Understand the Role of the Holy Spirit in Biblical Interpretation: No New Revelation; No Guarantee of Infallible Interpretation; No Deeper Truth; No substitute for diligent and proper study; No Guarantee of resolution of difficult passages; Only the saved can be enabled by the Holy Spirit to truly appreciate and apply the Word; All who are saved have access to the Holy Spirit; Those who truly seek Him find His help.

 

  1. Understand the limits of Application:
  • The Bible does not give specific instructions on all issues for Christians of every age.
  • In our constantly changing world, even if the Bible were to give specific instructions regarding a situation, it will require re-adaptation and re-application of the Bible to the changing world and situation.
  • The stronger the stance is on inerrancy, the greater will be the desire to seek and apply its truths.
  • The closer the interpretation is to the original meaning, the more accurate will be the application.
  • We need to show grace and humility in our application of the Bible.

DIGGING DEEP 11 BY ABIDAN PAUL SHAH

DIGGING DEEP – 11 by Abidan Paul Shah

Digging Deep

Digging Deep

Biblical Theology of the New Testament:

Recap

  • Hermeneutical Triangle of Literature, History, and Theology
  • Historical development in biblical theology: Biblical Theology was given a subordinate role to church dogma for centuries. The “rule of faith” became the guiding principle. With the coming of the Reformation and the replacement of dogma by sola scriptura, biblical theology regained its place in the interpretation of the Bible.
  • OT Biblical Theology

How does NT theology help in studying the Bible?

It keeps us from focusing on smaller and smaller parts of the Bible and helps us to get the bigger picture.

Some Major Issues in NT Biblical Theology

  • Unity and Diversity of the New Testament
  • Relationship between the Old Testament and the New Testament

Is there a key or center to the NT Theology? Many different centers have been proposed:

  • Anthropology (Rudolph Bultmann)
  • Salvation History (O. Cullmann, George Eldon Ladd, L. Goppelt)
  • Covenant, Love, and Other proposals (W. Eichrodt, Herman Ridderbos)
  • Christology (Bo Reicke, F.C. Grant)
  • God and Christ or Christocentric (Hasel)

For OT Biblical Theology we turned to Kaiser’s view, so also for the NT.

Kaiser proposes what is known as the “promise-plan of God” as the center of biblical theology. It epangelical view.” It comes from the word for “promise” in Greek. It is a mediating position between the Reformed Covenantal view and the Dispensational view. It is not a flawless view but it does provide us with a peg to hang our biblical theology. 

Kaiser offers the following 10 stages of the Promise (For New Testament)

  1. The Arrival of the Promise (John the Baptist, Zechariah, Mary, Simeon, Anna)
  2. The Promise-Plan and the Law of God (James, Galatians)
  3. The Promise-Plan and the Mission of the Church (1 & 2 Thessalonians, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Romans)
  4. The Promise-Plan and Paul’s Prison Epistles (Colossians, Philemon, Philippians, Ephesians)
  5. The Promise-Plan and The Kingdom of God (Matthew, Mark)
  6. The Promise-Plan and the Promised Holy Spirit (Luke-Acts)
  7. The Promise-Plan and Purity of Life and Doctrine (1 & 2 Peter, Jude)
  8. The Promise-Plan and The Pastoral Letters (1 & 2 Timothy, Titus)
  9. The Promise-Plan and the Supremacy of Jesus (Hebrews)
  10. The Promise-Plan and the Gospel of The Kingdom (John, 1-3 John, Revelation)

 

Test Passages: 

  1. Matthew 28:16-20

 

  1. John 4:42

 

  1. Ephesians 4:5-6

 

  1. 2 Timothy 3:16-17

 

  1. Hebrews 11:1

 

  1. James 3:1-12

 

  1. I Peter 3:18
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